|All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.|
|SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY|
|National Certificate: Submarine Operations|
|SAQA QUAL ID||QUALIFICATION TITLE|
|58840||National Certificate: Submarine Operations|
|SGB Maritime Defence|
|PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY||NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK|
|SAS SETA - Safety and Security SETA||OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework|
|National Certificate||Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security||Sovereignty of the State|
|ABET BAND||MINIMUM CREDITS||PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL||NQF LEVEL||QUAL CLASS|
|Undefined||141||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||Regular-Unit Stds Based|
|REGISTRATION STATUS||SAQA DECISION NUMBER||REGISTRATION START DATE||REGISTRATION END DATE|
|LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT||LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT|
|In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.|
This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification.
|PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION|
This qualification is aimed at people who are working within an Officer Training Programme with a view to being recognised as fully-fledged submarine warfare operations officers. Typically, they will be people in SAN training schemes, developing their skills towards this qualification.
Learners may also already be submariners who wish to develop their skills for operations management. In particular this qualification will be useful for:
This qualification is designed to be flexible and accessible so that people are able to demonstrate the competencies required to work safely and productively in a sub-surface operations environment. Recipients of this qualification will have knowledge and skills in the areas of fundamental life skills; safety, health, environment & quality; and the knowledge and skills to direct combat operations in a submarine.
Recipients of this qualification will be able to:
Submarine Warfare Officers will carry out their role within the context of:
The Defence Force has taken the decision to align its training of personnel to qualifications registered on the NQF. The SA Navy (SAN) wishes to provide for the recognition of key clusters of leadership and management competencies, which coincide with SAN command requirements. The majority of the learners accessing this qualification are likely to have completed the introductory courses to warship safety management and the sub-surface elective of bridge watch-keeping within a naval context, and wish to progress within a chosen field of specialisation-in this case, submarine operations management. This qualification will give them the opportunity to develop and balance their practical skills with the essential knowledge needed to earn a formal qualification in Submarine Operations Management.
There is a critical need in the SAN to identify people from different demographic and gender backgrounds who have a sound foundation in seamanship and warship safety management, and who have begun to specialise in watch keeping at Level 4. This qualification will provide them with the opportunity to develop the specific and complex skills demanded of those who manage sub-surface operations within a safety conscious and highly regulated sector. This qualification also recognises that learners may access the qualification either as submariners with extensive experience of on-board operation, or as candidate officers without extensive practical operational knowledge and skill, and provides for this eventuality. A decision has also been made that the SAN must comply with, or exceed, international maritime standards. Traditionally, SAN training has been of a high standard in defined areas, but has not always produced people capable of working at the levels required by international maritime license requirements. The qualification recognises and makes provision for these additional requirements.
In addition, the policy of the Defence Force, as part of a broader skills development process in South Africa, wishes to provide for mobility of its personnel (Learners) and for portability of competencies and learning obtained from one qualification to another where at all possible.
A further consideration is that, for transformation purposes, large numbers of generally poorly educated and trained people need access to high quality learning and assessment opportunities if they are to meet the requirements of the maritime sector in general, and the SAN in particular. The possibilities for incremental learning, which builds on generic officer training, must be created if the SAN is to make the equitable distribution of skills a reality. This qualification will assist the SAN to meet this objective.
Finally, there are people who have been working in the SAN for some time, and who have gained the additional skills and expertise required through systematic on-the-job training. This qualification and its constituent unit standards can make an invaluable contribution to personal and SAN skills development by providing for the recognition of the skills gained in this manner, through a systematic RPL process.
In summary, the rationale for the qualifications is to:
|LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING|
|It is assumed that learners are competent in Mathematics and Science at NQF Level 4.
The international Language in the maritime sector (Navy and merchant marine) is English and it is assumed that Learners are competent in English at NQF Level 4.
It is also assumed that learners are already competent in Surface Warship Safety Management, and Surface Bridge Watchkeeping when starting to learn towards this qualification.
In addition, with respect to submarines, learners should already be competent in the following specific areas:
Specific Unit Standards intended for Submarine Bridge Watchkeeping are included below:
Recognition of Prior Learning:
There is a critical need in the SAN to identify people from different demographic and gender backgrounds who have a sound foundation in seamanship and warship safety management, and who have begun to specialise in bridge watch-keeping at NQF Level 4. This qualification will provide for them the opportunity to have the specific and complex skills demanded of those who manage sub-surface operations recognised within a safety conscious and highly regulated sector.
This qualification also recognises that there may be learners who are already submariners with extensive experience of on-board operation, and who would like existing skills recognised so that they can gain access to further development opportunities, and provides for this eventuality.
Evidence can be presented in various ways, including international and/or previous local qualifications, products, reports, testimonials mentioning functions performed, work records, portfolios, videos of practice and performance records.
All such evidence will be judged in accordance with the general principles of assessment described above and the requirements for integrated assessment.
This qualification can therefore be obtained in whole or in part through a process of RPL.
Access to the Qualification:
Access to this qualification is open to all learners in possession of a National Senior Certificate with Mathematics and Science, or equivalent qualification.
It is preferable that learners first complete a Watchkeeping Certificate.or a Qualification in Warship Operations Management.
|RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING?|
All unit standards in the Fundamental Component totalling 15 credits are compulsory.
All unit standards in the Core component totalling 122 credits are compulsory.
Learners must choose unit standards from the Elective component totalling a minimum of 4 credits.
|EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES|
|1. Communicate in a variety of ways.
2. Carry out an operational watch.
3. Plan, prepare and evaluate missions.
4. Fight the platform and/or combined force.
5. Conduct special sub-surface operations.
Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:
This qualification addresses all the Critical Cross-Field Outcomes, as detailed in the associated unit standards.
|ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA|
|Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 1:
Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 2:
Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 3:
Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 4:
Associated Assessment Criteria for Exit Level Outcome 5:
Assessment should take place within the context of:
Assessment will take place according to the detailed specifications indicated in the unit standards associated with each exit level outcome (see "associated unit standards" above).
Over and above the achievement of the specified unit standards, evidence of integration will be required as per the following broad criteria, all within the context of an active learning environment.
Assessors should note that the evidence of integration (as below) could well be presented by candidates when being assessed against the unit standards-thus there should not necessarily be separate assessments for each unit standard and then further assessment for integration. Well designed assessments should make it possible to gain evidence against each unit standard while at the same time gain evidence of integration.
Assessment should be in accordance with the following general and specific principles:
> Use appropriate, fair and manageable methods that are integrated into real work-related or learning situations.
> Judge evidence on the basis of its validity, currency, authenticity and sufficiency.
> Ensure assessment processes are systematic, open and consistent.
|Submarine qualifications are not common across the globe, and this qualification has been benchmarked against navies known to operate effective submarine services.
United States Naval Academy:
Submariner Career Path Information.
The fundamental goal of the trained submarine officer is to develop the professional skill and operational background to command a submarine. The achievement of this goal is accomplished through a definite series of professional qualifications, advanced training and operational sea experience.
Prior to reporting to a first submarine, candidates attend a 12-week Submarine Officer Basic Course. This period of instruction them with an opportunity to learn the theory and principles of submarine operation and control, the basic administrative responsibilities of a division officer, the theory of the submerged fire control problem and weapons systems, and the basic fundamentals of submarine operations and tactics.
Upon arriving at the first submarine, candidates are typically assigned as an engineering department division officer and will begin qualification as Engineering Officer of the Watch. Additionally, candidates commence submarine qualification. This is the first of the professional qualifications, which they will complete. Normally this qualification requires 12 to 15 months of operational experience. Qualification in submarines requires qualification on each of the major officer watch stations.
Engineering Officer of the Watch, Diving Officer of the Watch, Officer of the Deck, and in-port Duty Officer. Demonstration of theoretical and practical knowledge before a board of submarine commanding officers, and an underway demonstration of operational competence culminate in this most important achievement for a submarine junior officer.
The first at-sea assignment is normally 36 months in duration. For a small number of volunteers, the opportunity exists to split tour. The split tours consist of about 2 years on an operational SSN or SSBN followed by a 2 year tour in new construction or overhaul.
Prior to going to their first shore tour, candidates are required to complete qualification as Engineer Officer of a ship. This qualification is the second important professional goal. It is achieved by passing a comprehensive technical examination administered by the Director, Naval Propulsion Program. Candidates will normally complete their Engineer Officer qualification about the 24 months point of their JO tour. If they were trained in strategic weapons systems, candidates should attempt to also complete Strategic Weapons Officer qualification. This is not a requirement at this point, but highly desirable. Qualification is achieved by completion of a qualification card, a written examination, and a comprehensive oral board.
A few selected volunteers will rotate ashore at the 2 year point to instructor billets. These officers have normally completed the Engineer Officer qualification requirements, or will complete Engineer Officer qualification within one year of reporting to the training facility. Requirements for this duty are as follows:
The first shore assignment normally occurs after 2 1/2 to 3 years at sea. Many junior officers going ashore will fill shore billets at Submarine School, and group and squadron staffs. Others will fill important billets at the Naval Academy, NROTC units, recruiting districts, or will attend Naval Postgraduate School (NPGS). Other billets are available is such diverse areas as intelligence, overseas submarine staffs and major Washington area staffs including Naval Military Personnel Command, Strategic Projects and OPNAV.
These shore tours are 2 years in length and will be followed by an at-sea department head tour.
The second sea tour is an assignment as a department head. These assignments include:
The department head tour is preceded by duty under instruction at the Submarine Officer Advanced Course (SOAC) at the Naval Submarine School in New London, Connecticut. SOAC is a 22 week course of instruction which provides submarine qualified officers with advanced in-depth training in the following areas: Shipboard Administration, Sonar, Electronic Warfare, Navigation, Weapons Systems, Weapons Employment Systems, Advanced Submarine Tactics and Weapons Employment, ASW and ASUW Operations, Communications and Operations, Leadership and Management Education Training.
The primary emphasis is placed on instruction and practical work in the tactical employment of the submarine and associated weapons systems. Officers who attend the school are issued permanent change of station orders. Attendance at SOAC requires an agreement to remain on active duty for 24 months after completion of the course.
Officers may be detailed to a "split" department head tour-that is, two tours (total length 4 years) in different billets to maximize professional experience prior to assignment as Executive Officer.
Each department head is challenged to prove him/herself as a submarine warfare expert, administrator and personnel manager. Performance demonstrated as a department head will provide the primary basis for competing for promotion to lieutenant commander and for selection as Executive Officer.
During the department head tour, candidates should complete requirements for command qualification. This qualification is the third professional goal. Successful completion of this qualification is predicated upon demonstrating the maturity, professional competence, and leadership required to be a Commanding Officer. The Squadron Commander convenes a board to evaluate each candidate through underway and in-port examinations. The Submarine Force Commander grants final approval as "Qualified for Command of Submarines".
Generally, by the completion of the department head tour, candidates should be experienced in the operation of both SSNs (attack submarines) and SSBNs (ballistic missile firing submarines).
Officers then rotate to a shore duty assignment after completion of their department head tour(s). This tour will be 2 years in duration. Many of the billets available are involved in the support of the Submarine Force on the staffs of the Squadron, Group and Type Commanders. Billets in the Washington area are available in OPNAV (i.e., Deputy Chief of Naval Operations-Submarine Warfare), in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and in the Naval Military Personnel Command, among others. Additionally, selected officers completing an Engineer Officer tour are assigned to fleet commander staffs as members of the Nuclear Propulsion Examining Board.
Candidates' assignment as Executive Officer (XO) is contingent upon selection by a formal Executive Officer Screening Board convened by the Chief of Naval Personnel. Candidates will be considered for selection by three separate boards over a 3 year period. Their first screening will be by the board convened in the summer prior to the fiscal year in which they reach 10 years of commissioned service.
Executive officer tour lengths are 22-26 months. In addition to their specific duties as XO, candidates will normally complete requirements for command qualification early in this tour, if this qualification was not completed during their department head tour. Qualifying for command and being selected for command are not the same. Selection for command is carried out by the Submarine Command Selection Board. An officer is considered by the board once a year for 3 years, starting in his 12th year of commissioned service.
Officers generally are assigned to a shore duty prior to command. This 2 year tour will be in a wide variety of challenging assignments, primarily on major staffs and in the Washington, DC area.
Officers selected and qualified will be ordered directly to command upon the completion of their post-Executive Officer shore tour. Prior to reporting to their ships, they will attend about 6 months of formal Prospective Commanding Officer (PCO) training. Specific submarine PCO training is conducted by the Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (13 weeks), and the type commander (9 weeks). Command tour length will normally be 3 years.
Following command, submarine officers are assigned ashore in a variety of billets. Some of the most challenging assignments are in the submarine support area. These include submarine squadron deputy commander for training and readiness, as well as positions on submarine Group and Type Commanders' staffs in weapons, operations, plans and training. Assignments are also available outside the submarine support area and include tours in Washington, DC, overseas, and as a student at the Naval War College. The nominal post-command tour length is 2 years.
A leader with the confidence to make key tactical decisions under pressure to guide our submarines safely through the seas in conflict and in peacetime.
The standard of seamanship and navigation training received by all Royal Navy Warfare Officer complies with International Maritime Organization regulations and is recognised by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, making conversion to a civilian maritime career much easier.
A good Warfare Officer has many qualities, not least of which is the ability to make fast and safe decisions, under pressure, while staying calm.
They must be able to prioritise your workload while carrying out several tasks at the same time. They must always be willing to be flexible and adapt to new circumstances at short notice. They need to be completely reliable and able to perform at your very best at any time of day or night. But being a Warfare Officer is not all about relentless action, so they also need to be able to deal with periods of relative inactivity and routine.
Candidates will have outstanding leadership potential but will need to be able to play their part in the various tasks your ship is required to perform.
Potential Officers must attend a two-day Admiralty Interview Board at HMS Sultan in Hampshire. As well as a formal interview and a discussion exercise, they are set a number of fitness and mental agility tasks including verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills, concentration and spatial orientation. They are also be tested on their potential leadership skills.
Warfare Officers spend up to a year at the Britannia Royal Naval College in Dartmouth, Devon. The training is extremely demanding but rewarding. From the moment they arrive, candiates are part of a team as they learn naval and leadership skills, take part in exercises and have their first sea-going experience.
Common Fleet Time is a four-month package of training at sea designed to give candidates a breadth of knowledge about the Royal Navy. They work with each of the ship's departments, learning how they operate and studying for their Fleet Board examination.
Specialist Fleet Time is where candidates work to gain greater depth of knowledge by focusing on their future as a Warfare Officer.
Training is a continual process as candidates develop throughout their career. After their basic training, candidates join a ship and get more sea experience as they work towards their Navigational watch Certificate and Bridge Warfare Qualification as an Officer of the Watch in ships that are usually based in Portsmouth or Plymouth.
Their next step will be to go to the Submarine School at HMS Raleigh, in Torpoint, Cornwall, for four months to learn about all aspects of submarines' operation, including warfare, weapons, propulsion and escape training.
Candidates are then be able to test their basic skills at sea as a Submariner. After an interview to check that they know literally every pipe, nut and bolt of their submarine, they win their Dolphins-the badge that shows they are a Submariner.
Submarine qualification programs vary from navy to navy, although varying in degree of difficulty, complexity and duration they all are basically the same consisting of formal training of some kind and learning the systems of the submarine in varying degrees of detail once on board a submarine.
The length of the qualification program and the degree of knowledge required of the individual is in place purely as a result of safety and to maximize the submarine's fighting efficiency. The systems are learned so that whatever happens in the submarine everyone knows instinctively what to do when things get rough so that the survival of the boat isn't compromised. Whatever a submariner's background or occupation may be he must be aware of his surroundings and be capable of taking quick action in the event of an emergency situation.
The Canadian qualification program evolved from both the Royal Navy Submarine Service and United States Navy Submarine Service adopting the British approach of the three month "part III's" however extending it into a 7 month program by increasing the content and complexity of knowledge required similar to that of the U.S.N.
A tentative submariner first attends a 6-week basic submarine course in Fleet School Halifax. Course content is a comprehensive study of submarine theory of operation, submarine systems covering all aspects of submarine equipment such as air systems, hydraulic systems, electrical systems, weapons systems, sensors and so on; in other words virtually every system in the submarine is addressed.
On completion of the basic submarine course the novice submariner joins a submarine and commences his on board qualification program. Learning takes place over a 7 month period:
As the qualifier progresses through the various systems and procedures in any given month he must demonstrate his knowledge of the particular item, what its purpose is and how to operate it to a qualified member of the crew who will "sign off" the item in the qualifier's book as completed once the qualifier has demonstrated the correct knowledge.
Once the qualifier has completed all items for that month he is given a walk through by a senior rate who is expert in the area being covered for that month who examines the qualifier in all aspects of what he has learned. On successful completion of the senior rate's walk through the qualifier does an officer's walk through and on successful completion moves on to the next month.
On completion of the 7 month program the qualifier must do a final walk through of the submarine first with the Engineering Officer and then the Executive Officer. This walk through combines all he has learned during the qualifying process and he is examined in all aspects of what he has learned both in theory and "hands on" operation.
The final walk through is quite lengthy and includes open up for dive in all compartments which requires the qualifier to know virtually every piece of equipment in the submarine, what position, function or mode of operation it should be in and how it operates. A final walk through normally takes 8 to 10 hours to complete and is done over two or three days.
Rarely does the qualifier complete the qualification process in 7 months. The qualifier while completing his submarine qualification is also at the same time learning his own trade related items and equipment, standing watches and carrying out all other submarine day to day requirements. There are also many variables such as equipment availability, docking and leave periods, availability of walk through personnel and so on which tend to slow the process down somewhat. On average it is closer to a year.
The particular qualification in question is one that falls within a highly regulated sector where all parties operating ocean-going vessels have set and agreed to comply with standards key roles charged with the safety of shipping.
The proposed National Certificate: Submarine Operations Management at NQF Level 5 complies with the requirements of the IMO STCW Code, and is similar to qualifications operating in allied Navies internationally. The Royal Navy are regarded as the leaders, and the SAN has closely followed the British approach.
|The qualifications for the navy have yet to be developed, so articulation at present is limited but includes qualifications in the merchant marine.
Horizontal articulation is possible with the following qualification:
Vertical articulation is possible with the following qualifications:
|CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS|
|Assessors must be:
|As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015.|
|ID||UNIT STANDARD TITLE||PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL||NQF LEVEL||CREDITS|
|Core||244646||Conduct helicopter operations||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Core||244644||Distribute information and control traffic on voice and data nets during operations||Level 4||NQF Level 04||3|
|Core||244649||Manoeuvre and position the platform for tactical purposes||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Core||244648||Carry out watch keeping operations in the Submarine Operation Room||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||6|
|Core||244640||Conduct military missions in accordance with national and naval sub-surface doctrine||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||5|
|Core||244650||Create and maintain a recognised maritime picture||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||5|
|Core||244643||Demonstrate understanding of submarine systems and capabilities||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||12|
|Core||244638||Demonstrate understanding of the principles of mission command||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||8|
|Core||244627||Deploy torpedoes tactically under operational conditions||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||8|
|Core||244651||Evaluate and report on missions||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||3|
|Core||244632||Execute a mission plan on a submarine||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||12|
|Core||244637||Execute optimum weapons employment||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||4|
|Core||244641||Manage emergencies and damage control in submerged and surface states||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||12|
|Core||244647||Plan and conduct mine laying operations in a submarine||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||8|
|Core||244633||Plan and evaluate sub-surface naval operations at tactical level||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||12|
|Core||244636||Plan, coordinate and execute the deployment and recovery of special force operations||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||10|
|Fundamental||115792||Access, process, adapt and use data from a wide range of texts||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||5|
|Fundamental||115789||Sustain oral interaction across a wide range of contexts and critically evaluate spoken texts||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||5|
|Fundamental||115790||Write and present for a wide range of purposes, audiences and contexts||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||5|
|Elective||244654||Control and extinguish fires on a submarine||Level 3||NQF Level 03||5|
|Elective||244635||Apply safety and emergency legislation and naval procedures in the submarine service||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Elective||244656||Bring a submarine to periscope depth and surface||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Elective||244657||Carry out detection evasion measures in a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Elective||244634||Detect, classify, identify and track targets by means of submarine sensor systems||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Elective||244625||Direct battery-charging operations on a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||5|
|Elective||244655||Direct berthing and/or mooring operations on a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||4|
|Elective||244623||Identify and signal emergencies and distress on a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Elective||244630||Maintain a safe bridge watch on a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||10|
|Elective||244642||Manage and conduct operations in a multi-threat environment||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Elective||244626||Manoeuvre a submarine in a submerged state||Level 4||NQF Level 04||8|
|Elective||244653||Operate the internal and external communications network on a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||4|
|Elective||244628||Prepare to and dive a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||10|
|Elective||244639||Use a periscope under tactical watchkeeping conditions||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Elective||244631||Use electronic aids to navigate a passage in a submarine||Level 4||NQF Level 04||6|
|Elective||244645||Achieve and maintain a state of operational readiness.||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||4|
|Elective||244629||Conduct peace support operations||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||6|
|Elective||244652||Direct special purpose missions||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||10|
|Elective||244624||Plan and control vessel operating costs||Level 5||Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5||4|
|LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION:|
|PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION:|
|This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.