SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand, and the concept: production 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
13998  Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand, and the concept: production 
ORIGINATOR
Interim SGB for Business, Commerce, Mgmnt Studies 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 03 - Business, Commerce and Management Studies Generic Management 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
ABET Level 4  Regular  Level 1  NQF Level 01 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A candidate credited with this general competence will be able to: demonstrate an understanding of production, and its impact on the South African economy. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
ABET Level 3. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of supply and demand. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The concept of supply and demand of goods and services is identified and discussed. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Factors impacting on supply and demand are outlined. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Seasons ; Consumer behaviour, cost of production, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The link between price and supply and demand is explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Seasons ; Consumer behaviour, cost of production, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. An understanding of price determination is demonstrated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Production cost, overheads, marketing expenses, etc.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Demonstrate an understanding of the factors of production. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The concept production is explained. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Factors of production are discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Land, Labour, Capital, Entrepreneurship
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. An understanding of the factors of production is demonstrated practically. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Case study, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The importance of production is discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Satisfy needs, create wealth, to be self sufficient
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
5. The role of technology in production is debated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Positive: mass production, cost effective etc. Negative: leads to unemployment, health hazards etc.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of the factors of production on the South African Economy 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The impact of labour on the South African Economy is discussed. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Ratio of skilled to unskilled labour, rising unemployment, migrant labour, labour demands, living wages, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The factors underlying the scarcity of land are explored. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Imbalances in land ownership, geographical factors, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The flow of capital in the South African Economy is investigated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Investment flow, exchange rates, role of Reserve Bank, etc.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. The impact of entrepreneurial skills on the South African Economy is debated. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Positive: Improvement of SA Economy, creation of wealth ; etc. Negative: Unemployment, Lack of skills, etc.
 


UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Exchange rates
Price determination
Remuneration for each factor of production. 

UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
1. Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively;
2. Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities;
3. Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts;
4. Exploring education and career opportunities; and
5. Developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 


Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation and community. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environments and health of others. 

UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation. 

REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
  ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
Core  24153   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2008-09-13  Was ETDP SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
Core  50584   General Education and Training Certificate: Clothing Manufacturing Processes  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  50225   General Education and Training Certificate: General Forestry  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  65969   General Education and Training Certificate: Human Settlements Development  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 
Core  49082   GETC: Wood Products Processing  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
Core  23253   National Certificate (GETC): Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Activities  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MERSETA 
Core  20287   National Certificate: Farming  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 
Core  24198   National Certificate: Construction Material Manufacturing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 
Core  20893   National Certificate: Human Resources Management and Practices Support  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2005-02-13  Was SABPP until Last Date for Achievement 
Core  21728   National Certificate: Labour Recruitment Consultancy  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-06-12  SERVICES 
Elective  48642   General Education and Training Certificate Housing: Housing Consumer Education  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2009-05-13  Was CETA until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  71751   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
Elective  73249   General Education and Training Certificate: Adult Basic Education and Training: Academic Curriculum  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  UMALUSI 
Elective  20183   National Certificate: Banking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2015-06-30  BANKSETA 
Elective  20654   National Certificate: Craft Bread and Flour Confectionery Baking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2006-04-20  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  20288   National Certificate: Farming  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  AgriSETA 
Elective  20657   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Plant Baking Processing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2009-02-18  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 
Elective  64029   National Certificate: Food Processing: Plant Baking  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 
Elective  20214   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Processing: Dairy Primary Processing  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2004-12-05  Was FOODBEV until Last Date for Achievement 


PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
 
1. 1 Classie Africa 
2. A Z Community Services 
3. African Apex Apparel (Pty) Ltd 
4. AL Development Services cc 
5. Amasiko Trading Enterprise 
6. Aniathu Trading (Pty) Ltd 
7. AQUILA TRAINING 
8. Aranda Textile Mills Pty Ltd 
9. Arden School of Management (Pty) Ltd 
10. Assured Vocational Skills Institute (Pty) Ltd 
11. Avad Projects (Pty) Ltd 
12. Ayasaphe Trading cc 
13. Bakgoni Empowerment Centre (Pty) Ltd 
14. Balemi Consulting Pty Ltd 
15. Better beginning trading and projects pty ltd 
16. Big Tree Group (Pty) Ltd 
17. Bokamoso Competence (Pty) Ltd 
18. Bonenhle Investments 
19. Bontham Training & Agricultural Consultants 
20. Bosasa Youth Development Centres (Pty) Ltd 
21. Breakeven 59(PTY) Ltd 
22. BT Group of Companies (Pty) Ltd 
23. Btech 
24. Camblish Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
25. CANDYS UNLIMITED COLLECTION Pty Ltd 
26. Cape Business & Engineering College (Pty) Ltd 
27. Cape Town Workbased Learning Academy 
28. Capricorn TVET College 
29. Changing Women 
30. Chippa Training Academy (Pty) Ltd 
31. Circleway College 
32. CKWEI Clothing (Pty) Ltd 
33. CMO Logistics Pty Ltd 
34. Coastal Kzn F.E.T. College - Swinton Road Campus 
35. College of Cape Town - Athlone Campus 
36. Continental Tyres SA (Pty) Ltd (NEW BRIGHTON) (TP) 
37. Cradle Stars Trading Enterprise (Pty) Ltd 
38. Cre8tion Projects 6 PTY LTD 
39. CRK Designs (Pty) Ltd 
40. Cumlaude Institute (PTY) Ltd 
41. Dinaka Business Management & Consulting 
42. DITEBOGO CONSULTANCY CC 
43. Dlabane Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
44. Dlamini The Siba PTY LTD 
45. Do It Again Academy (Pty) Ltd 
46. Dr M Investments 
47. Duzi-Corp 56 
48. Ebotse Development and Training Centre 
49. Ekurhuleni Artisans & Skills Training Centre (Pty) Ltd 
50. Elimofo Trading& Projects 
51. Esayidi FET College - Central Office 
52. ETS Emergency Training Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
53. Faithworks Development Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
54. FALSE BAY TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING COLLEGE 
55. Fezile Fashion Skills Academy (Pty) Ltd 
56. Flavious Mareka TVET College 
57. Forthwawe Business Centre 
58. Fundakahle Multi-Purpose Co-operative Limited 
59. Fundani School of Thought (pty) Ltd 
60. Furniture World Training Centre 
61. Future Discovery Training Academy CC 
62. Future Dynamics Learning 
63. Gauteng City College 
64. Gcinumbuso (Pty) Ltd 
65. Gia Development Trades 
66. Glicam Trading Enterprise 
67. Grandstar Projects 
68. Green Earth Training & Development (Pty) Ltd 
69. Green Enviro & Projects (Pty)Ltd 
70. Greenrim Training 
71. GT Design 
72. HHO Enterprise 
73. HLUVUKA TRAINING AND CONSULTING 
74. Honey Cube Projects & Services (Pty) Ltd 
75. Hoseah Training and Manufacturing NPC 
76. Hot To Go Training College and Services 
77. I Care Resource Centre 
78. Ikamvelihle Youth Development (Pty) Ltd 
79. Imara Umbono Incorporated (Pty) Ltd 
80. Imbewu Development Institute (Pty) Ltd 
81. Impela Trading cc 
82. In House Media Instruction 
83. In Time Industrial (Pty) Ltd 
84. Inafrica General Trading Pty LTD 
85. INSTITUTE FOR QUALITY EDUCATION, TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: FLORIDA 
86. Inter-Coastal Business & Property Services cc 
87. INTERACTIVE TUTOR (PTY) LIMITED 
88. INTERMASIKO CC 
89. Intuthuko Yesizwe Community Organisation 
90. Inyathi Visions 
91. Ithemba Lomphakathi Community Organisation 
92. Ithuteng Learning Academy & Projects (Pty) Ltd 
93. Ivulandlela (Pty) Ltd 
94. Izintombizekhethelo (Pty) Ltd 
95. Jeppe College of Commerce and Computer Studies 
96. JMC TECHNICAL TRAINING (Bloemfontein)(TP) 
97. Jumpstart Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
98. kagisho Business Concepts (Pty) Ltd 
99. Kelmik Training Centre (Pty) Ltd 
100. Kingdom Varsity College (Pty) Ltd 
101. Kingsbury International College (SA) 
102. Knoop Academy NPC 
103. Kotton Wear (Pty) Ltd 
104. Kusabelele Investments 
105. Kwamahlati Training Services cc 
106. KWEM Management Solutions 
107. La Gratitude Academy 
108. Legal Environment Safety & Health Requirements cc 
109. Lembede Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
110. Leronsa Trading Enterprise 
111. Letaba TVET College 
112. LFS DESIGNS 
113. Liston Agri Solution & Training Consultancy 
114. LLSM (Pty) Ltd 
115. Longata Consultant 
116. Lucky Neo (Pty) Ltd 
117. Lwaziphezinhle (Pty) Ltd 
118. Maab Training Management ( Pty) Ltd 
119. Maboko Skill Development & Projects 
120. Malitinne (Pty) Ltd 
121. Maluti TVET College 
122. Mananthatshema Skills Dev. Centre 
123. Matatiele Fashion Design Academy (Pty) Ltd 
124. Maxlen Holdings (Pty) Ltd 
125. Mberwana Trading Enterprise 
126. Mbimbini Training and Community Development 
127. Meals on Wheels Community Services - South Africa 
128. Mearnsii Trading cc 
129. Mgadaveni Training Projects (Pty) Ltd 
130. MICROMATICA 384 (PTY) LTD 
131. Mlasimbi Catering Primary Co-operative Limited 
132. MMBG Trading & Consulting 
133. Mnambithi TVET College 
134. Modiehi Consulting & Projects (Pty) Ltd 
135. MORTERBOARD TRAINING SOLUTIONS (PTY) LTD 
136. Mphahle Consultancy (Pty) Ltd 
137. MT & HR Training Consultants (Pty) Ltd (DURBAN) (TP) 
138. Mugazi Consultancy cc 
139. Mukwevho Training and Development 
140. Mwanga Training & Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
141. NDIMASE TRADING 
142. Nedbank Ltd 
143. NELLY-SGUEEJE TRADING 
144. New Business Initiative Management Consultancy 
145. New Heights 1082 
146. Ngaphakathi Investments 
147. Ngcebo Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
148. Nhlanzi Investments (Pty) Ltd 
149. Nikwe Trading (Pty) Ltd 
150. Nkulungwane General Trader cc 
151. Nolwazi Dev Centre (Pty) Ltd 
152. Nomzumbe Trading & Projects (Pty) Ltd 
153. Northlink College 
154. Nosino Projects (Pty) Ltd 
155. Nteko Investments 
156. Ntuthuko Projects & Services 
157. Nurture-Nature Resources (Pty) Ltd 
158. Nurtured Minds Trading (Pty) Ltd 
159. Optimi Workplace 
160. Optimum Capacity (Pty) Ltd 
161. OTP 
162. Oyama Kulwazi Training & Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
163. Pectosource (Pty) Ltd 
164. Penny Lane Fashion School (Pty) Ltd 
165. Phambile Skills Training (Pty) Ltd 
166. PIONEER VOEDSEL (PTY) LTD 
167. Platorand Training Centre 
168. Port Elizabeth Draughting Academy & Trading cc T/A PE Draughting Acade 
169. Positive Thinking Consultants CC 
170. Practice Makes Perfect Training Centre 
171. Premier Agric (Pty) Ltd 
172. Prempie Business Solutions (Pty) Ltd 
173. Prispiri (Pty) Ltd 
174. Production Management Institute 
175. Production Management Institute of Southern Africa (PMI) - Johannesburg 
176. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE SA PTY LTD (PORT ELIZABETH) 
177. Professional Development and Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
178. Professional Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
179. Progressive School of Business and Engineering (Pty) 
180. Qualfurn Training & Projects 
181. Rally Business Consulting PTY LTD 
182. Re Tshepeng Holdings 
183. Redefined Skills Training & Development (Pty) Ltd 
184. Rekopane Training Centre CC 
185. RI A LINDA SECURITY SOLUTIONS 
186. RJM Investments 
187. Royal Express 
188. RUBICON COMMUNICATIONS 
189. Russel Meaker cc 
190. Sabela Learning Academy 
191. Seacrest Investments 156 (Pty) Ltd 
192. Sedibeng TVET College 
193. Sekhukhune FET College - Central Office 
194. SEOPOSENGOE TRAINING CONSULTANCY CC 
195. Setlakala Business Development 
196. Sew Africa Training Centre 
197. Sibalwethu Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
198. Sibonguthando Projects And Services Cc 
199. Silalele Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
200. Silungokuhle (Pty) Ltd 
201. Sinovuyolethu Trading (Pty) Ltd 
202. Siyasanga Training Centre 
203. Souls 4 Life Trading (Pty) Ltd 
204. South African Advanced Skills Institute 
205. SOUTH AFRICAN FASHION DESIGNER AGENCY 
206. South African Forestry Training College 
207. South Cape Public FET College - George Campus 
208. South West Gauteng Tvet College 
209. STUDIO 05 HOUSE OF FASHION 
210. Sunrise Skills Training 
211. Swift Skills Academy (SASOLBURG) (TP) 
212. T Mdlatu Trading Enterprise cc 
213. Take Note Trading 227 cc 
214. Talent for Sewing 
215. Taletso FET College - Central Office 
216. TBL Empowerment Hub 
217. Tebkhan Investments (Pty) Ltd 
218. Tembe Service Providers 
219. ThabileTrade 1054 cc 
220. The Brokers Learning Centre 
221. The Finishing College (Pty) Ltd 
222. The Institute of Fashion and Garment Technology (Pty) Ltd 
223. The Skills Development Hub (Pty) Ltd 
224. Thitha Training and Development Services 
225. Thunderflex3 Pty (Ltd) 
226. Thuto Skills Development 
227. Tirhani SkillsTraining Pty Ltd 
228. Tiriso Investments 
229. Tlhole Foundation (PTY) LTD 
230. Trade Call Investments Apparel (Pty) LTD 
231. Trade Call Investments Apparel (Pty) Ltd (Mobeni) 
232. Train Learn and Develop Ltd 
233. Training Force (Pty) Ltd 
234. Training Force (Pty) Ltd (Durban) (TP) 
235. True Ruby Trading 1021 cc 
236. Try Easy Electrical Solutions 
237. Tshwane North College 
238. U AND G TRAINING (PTY) LTD 
239. Ubucubu Home Industries 
240. Ubuhle Bengcebo 
241. Udumo Services & Projects 
242. Udumo Training & Develoment (Pty) Ltd 
243. Ukubhukuda Trading & Projects 165 
244. Umfolozi TVET College (Richards Bay) 
245. Umgano Foundation (NPC) 
246. Umlozi Skills Centre (Pty) Ltd 
247. Umnotho We Afrika Foundation NPC 
248. Umunotho Wealth Management Pty Ltd 
249. Uyabusisa Arts and Development Pty Ltd 
250. Valotech 274 (Pty) Ltd 
251. Value at Hand (Pty) Ltd 
252. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 
253. Verge (Pty) Ltd 
254. Vhembe TVET College 
255. Vicmat Consultants 
256. Vijay Bhagwan Consultancy and Solutions cc 
257. VINE APPAREL (PTY)LTD 
258. Visionary Skill Academy 
259. VPK BUSINESS VENTURE C C 
260. Vuliqgondo Research & Manufacturing Centre 
261. Vuthlari Marketing Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
262. Warona Owethu Projects (Pty) Ltd 
263. Wattville Community Learning College 
264. Western Cape Clothing and Textiles Service Centre 
265. Westrand Graduate Institute Training and Engineering (Pty) Ltd 
266. Wilratty Consultants (Pty) Ltd 
267. WISPECO ALUMINIUM (Alrode)(Project Site NVC)(TP) 
268. Womens Leadership & Empowerment Initiative 
269. World Pace Development & Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
270. World Pace Development and Training Institute 
271. Yahweh Shammah Socio-Economic Development 
272. Yangantle Trading 
273. York Timbers Pty Ltd 
274. ZUCRO PROJECT CC 



All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.