SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of human performance and limitations in aviation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120047  Demonstrate understanding of human performance and limitations in aviation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air Defence 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A learner credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Demonstrate understanding of human factor concepts in aviation.
  • Demonstrate understanding of aviation physiology and health maintenance.
  • Demonstrate understanding of aviation psychology. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The terms "aircraft" and "aeroplane" are used as synonyms where appropriate. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of human factor concepts in aviation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Functions and limitations of individuals and organisations responsible for the improvement and maintenance of aviation safety are described in accordance with public safety standards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The terms individuals and organisations include but are not limited to:
  • Crew
  • Support personnel
  • Aircraft operators
  • Regulatory bodies
  • Military services
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Cockpit crew competence is described in terms of contributory attributes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Attributes include but are not limited to:
  • Technical expertise.
  • Self-confidence.
  • Motor skills.
  • Quantity and quality of experience.
  • Problem-solving ability.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Examples of aircraft accidents are analysed in terms of role played by human factors during the accident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effect that evolving technologies have on human factors to improve aviation safety is described in terms of current material available. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Causes and categories of accidents and incidents are described in relation to the role of human factors and other contributory causes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Interaction within flight crews and between the crew and external agencies is assessed in terms of its contribution to aviation safety. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate understanding of aviation physiology and health maintenance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The physiology of the human body is described in terms of factors affecting performance during flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The perceptual process is described in terms of multi-sensory nature and the human senses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The role of personal hygiene as a factor in human performance is discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Personal hygiene includes but is not limited to:
  • Diet
  • Resting
  • Health maintenance (exercise)
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Common minor ailments and preventative measures are discussed in terms of their effects on human performance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Common minor ailments include but are not limited to:
  • Colds and influenza, effects of pressure changes to structures in the ear, gastro-intestinal upsets.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Typical health problems to which flight crew are susceptible are identified and the consequences of non-adherence to prevention measures are discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Typical health problems include but are not limited to:
  • Hearing loss, defective vision, hypo- and hypertension, coronary disease, obesity, nutrition hygiene, tropical climates and epidemic diseases, intoxication, substance abuse.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The benefits of procedural simulator training are discussed in relation to the identification and recognition of signs and symptoms that might lead to the incapacitation of a crew member during flight. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate understanding of aviation psychology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Concepts of human information processing are discussed in terms of their impact on human performance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The aviation industry's current approach towards human error and the way in which this is managed are discussed in the context of aviation safety. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Techniques for avoiding and managing errors are discussed in the context of resource management. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Resource includes but is not limited to:
  • Cockpit crew
  • Support personnel
  • Aircraft operators
  • Regulatory bodies
  • Military services
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Different personality types are analysed for their hazardous attitudes and error proneness during flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Factors affecting workload management are described in terms of their influence on work performance in aviation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to:
  • Fatigue
  • Stress
  • Physical work environment
  • Distraction
  • Time of day
  • Task planning
  • Task delegation
  • Experience
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Advanced cockpit automation is described in terms of its advantages, disadvantages and automation-induced complacency for the crew members. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Human factors basic concepts:
  • Human factors in aviation
  • Accident statistics
  • Flight safety concepts

    Basic aviation physiology and health maintenance:
  • Basics of flight physiology:
    > The atmosphere
    > Respiratory and circulatory systems
    > High altitude environment
  • Man and the environment: the sensory system:

    > Central and peripheral nervous system
    > Vision
    > Hearing
    > Equilibrium
    > Integration of sensory inputs
  • Health and hygiene:

    > Personal hygiene
    > Common minor ailments
    > Problem areas for pilots
    > Intoxication
    > Incapacitation in flight

    Basic aviation psychology:
  • Human information processing:

    > Attention and vigilance
    > Perception
    > Memory
    > Response selection
  • Human error and reliability:

    > Reliability of human behaviour
    > Hypotheses on reality
    > Theory and model of human error
    > Error generation
    > Decision making
    > Decision making concepts
  • Avoiding and managing errors: cockpit management:

    > Safety awareness
    > Co-ordination (multi-crew concept)
    > Co-operation
    > Communication
  • Personality types:

    > Personality and attitudes
    > Individual differences in personality
    > Identification of hazardous attitudes (error proneness)
  • Factors affecting workload management:

    > Arousal
    > Stress
    > Fatigue
    > Body rhythms and sleep
    > Fatigue and stress management
  • Advanced and or warning environment cockpit automation:

    > Advantages and disadvantages
    > Automation complacency
    > Working concepts 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Understanding the underlying role of human performance and limitations in the context of aviation incidents and accidents
  • Understanding how threats and errors to the flight can be recognized, avoided, trapped and managed 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Understanding the need to support and challenge the actions of fellow crew members in ensuring effective and safe flight operations
  • Understanding the consequences of poor interaction between flight crew members, as well as between flight crew members and management
  • Understanding techniques that can be applied to facilitate interaction between flight crew members, as well as between flight crew members and management 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Understanding how cockpit procedures are developed and utilized to ensure effective and safe flight operations
  • Understanding the need for self-discipline as well as flight deck discipline to ensure effective and safe flight operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Using effective questioning techniques to obtain relevant information
  • Using discussion as a mode for validating the relevancy of information received or as a means for formulating alternative options 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Seeking clarification and confirmation when ambiguous information is received
  • Ensuring that all aspects are communicated to the correct people in a clear and concise manner 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Understanding the effect of environmental factors on the human body in order to reduce risks associated with human error
  • Understanding automation induced complacency how this can be managed to avoid incidents and accidents during flight 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Understanding how human performance limitations impact on flight safety 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Fundamental  63309   National Certificate: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Fundamental  49950   National Certificate: Navigation  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  TETA 
    Fundamental  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  49853   National Diploma: Defensive Mission Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2008-09-17  Was SAS SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Fundamental  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  50500   National Diploma: Electronic Warfare  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.