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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify signs of stress-induced damage in mining 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
254584  Identify signs of stress-induced damage in mining 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are responsible for the identification of stress induced damage in mining.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the stress field around mining openings.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of induced stress (compressive, tensile and shear) damage in mining.
  • Identify signs of stress induced damage in mining.
  • Record and report stress induced damage in mining.
  • Understand the need to record, report and rectify stress induced damage in mining. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the stress field around mining openings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An explanation is given of the stress field around shallow, intermediate and deep mining openings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An explanation is given of the development of induced stress damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An explanation is given of changes in the induced stress due to mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Over-stoping of excavations.
  • Leaving of pillars on off reef excavations.
  • Multi reef mining.
  • Steeply dipping ore bodies.
  • Long wall mining.
  • Pillar mining.
  • Scattered mining.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of induced stress (compressive, tensile and shear) damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An explanation is given of the difference between compression/tensile shear and induced stress damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Examples are given of mining activities that lead to induced compressive/tensile and shear damage in mining. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Identify signs of stress induced damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The method of identifying stress induced damage on a mine according to mine specific procedures is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Signs of stress induced damage are identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Bed separation.
  • Damage to support units (compressive, tensile and shear).
  • Sidewall scaling.
  • Face scaling and strain bursting.
  • Scaling along pillar edges.
  • Weak rock vs. strong rock failure modes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Stress induced damage is identified in terms of potential associated hazards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Pillar bursts and strain bursting.
  • Scaling of sidewalls and faces.
  • Falls of ground due to damage to support units.
  • Falls of ground due to bed separation and reduction in stress levels.
  • Falls of ground resulting from a loss of clamping forces.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Record and report stress induced damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The importance of conducting thorough examinations to identify stress induced damage in mining is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The need to record and report stress induced damage in mining according to mine specific procedures is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Mine specific record and report sheets on stress induced damage are completed using an organizational format. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Understand the need to record, report and rectify stress induced damage in mining. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The need and importance of reporting stress induced damage to the mine's Rock Engineering Department are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The need and importance of rectifying stress induced damage in mining is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The actions taken and status of the excavation are reported to designated personnel according to mine specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of deviating from mine specific procedures in the recording, reporting and rectifying of stress induced damage in mining are described in terms of the potential effect on safety, health, equipment and production. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Knowledge relating to understanding of the correct identification, making safe and support installations.
  • Significant hazards and risks related to the identification of induced stress related hazards and making safe process.
  • Applicable statutory requirements:
    > Codes of practice.
  • Communication.
    > Reporting requirements and ability.
    > Communicating with relevant personnel.
    > Liaison with associated operations and personnel. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability to assess the risks associated with induced stress damage in mining and its related hazards confirm ability to critically evaluate. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to promote the making safe of the working place as part of the mining team as a way to ensure his or her own safety confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to understand that identification of stress induced damage in mining and support installations must be planned and managed confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to identify induced stress related damage and related hazards and assess the associated risks. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/instructions.

    Site-Specific:
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Voluntary Codes of Practice.
  • Manufacturers Specifications.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.
  • Working Guides.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • Risk Assessment Documents.
  • South African Bureau of Standards and other standards. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  60369   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    2. GEOSTRAT TRAINING 
    3. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    4. SAFETY TRAINING PRACTITIONERS PTY LTD 
    5. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    6. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    7. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (SA)(PTY)LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.