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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify common support failure modes from observations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
254578  Identify common support failure modes from observations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are pursuing a career in rock engineering.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of support behaviour.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of various failure modes.
  • Observe and identify various failure modes.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general knowledge and understanding of identifying common support failure modes from observations in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 2. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of support behaviour. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Support characteristics are explained in terms support behaviour. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Active/Passive.
  • Stiff/soft.
  • Initial stiffness.
  • Yield Force.
  • Yield range.
  • Peak strength.
  • Point of failure.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Applicable support characteristics are indicated and explained in terms of Force - Deformation graphs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Active/Passive.
  • Stiff/soft.
  • Initial stiffness.
  • Yield Force.
  • Yield range.
  • Peak strength.
  • Point of failure.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Optimum support performance is explained with regard to common support types. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Elongates.
  • Packs.
  • Tendons.
  • Skin support.
  • Backfill.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of various failure modes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Common elongate support failure modes are explained in respect of failure modes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Buckling.
  • Splitting.
  • Shearing.
  • Toppling.
  • Crushing.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Common failure modes are explained with regard to pack support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Buckling.
  • Shearing.
  • Toppling.
  • Crushing.
  • Disintegration.
  • Implosion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Common failure modes are explained with regard to tendon support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Shearing.
  • Elongation (tensile).
  • Bending (indirect tensile).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Common failure modes are explained with regard to skin support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Cracking (indirect tensile).
  • Crushing.
  • Tearing.
  • Shearing.
  • Lack of adhesion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Common failure modes are explained with regard to backfill support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Shearing.
  • Crushing.
  • Containment failure.
  • Bulging.
  • Liquefaction.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Observe and identify various failure modes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Observed support failure modes of support units used in the local underground environment, is noted in written and sketched format. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Elongates.
  • Packs.
  • Tendons.
  • Skin support.
  • Backfill.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Variations in actual-to-expected support failure modes are identified and explained with regard to underground observations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Non-standard failure modes are reported to the appropriate personnel in terms of legal and operational requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Knowledge and understanding of support behaviour.
  • Knowledge and understanding of various failure modes.
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.
  • Observe and identify various failure modes.
  • Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to understand that identification of non-standard failure modes will ensure the safety of the team, confirms. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to conduct observations, assessments and reporting in a structured manner, confirms. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the candidate to observe and assess actual support failure modes and evaluate the differences to expected failure modes, confirms. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The ability to communicate support failure modes to the appropriate personnel so that the correct remedial action can be implemented, confirms. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The use of science and technology is promoted through the use of graphs to explain support behaviour and failure. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The understanding that the failure of support units, if non-standard, can affect stability of excavations and thus the Health and Safety of fellow employees, confirms. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-specific:
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Voluntary Codes of Practice.
  • Manufacturers Specifications.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.
  • Working Guides.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • Risk Assessment Documents.
  • South African Bureau of Standards and other standards. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  60369   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    2. GEOSTRAT TRAINING 
    3. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    4. SAFETY TRAINING PRACTITIONERS PTY LTD 
    5. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    6. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    7. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (SA)(PTY)LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.