SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform night flying operations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243329  Perform night flying operations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to demonstrate knowledge of legal, operational and human performance factors that distinguish night flying from day flying and apply this knowledge when performing airport operations and navigating the aircraft at night in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations and safe flying practice. This unit standard will assist the learner within the context of commercial piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Interpret the factors that distinguish night flight from day flight.
  • Fly an aircraft within the airport environment at night.
  • Navigate an aircraft at night. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF level 4.
  • Communication at NQF Level 4.
  • Fly a single-engine aircraft in all phases of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) by day.
  • Perform manoeuvres by sole reference to instruments, performing take-offs, landings and airport operations.
  • Navigate with reference to radio navigation aids. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • Assessment of the learner may be conducted in a single or multi-engine aeroplane with piston or turbo-propeller engine(s) and controllable-pitch propeller(s), or turbo-jet engine(s), retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, or in a helicopter with a maximum certificated mass of at least 500 kg. An equivalent flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft flight Manual (AFM) /Pilot Operating Handbook (POH).
  • Assessment of the learner must be conducted in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) by night.
  • General flight tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flight tolerances:

    > Speeds 10 kts.
    > Direction 10.
    > Altitude 100 ft.
    > Bank Angle 10.
    > Aircraft is balanced within of the balance ball.
    > Aircraft is in trim, excluding transient manoeuvres.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Assessment of the learner in emergency and abnormal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and abnormal situations.
  • Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
  • Assessment of the learner in the specific outcome "Navigate aircraft by night" shall be carried out in a single flight, over a triangular route of total length at least 100 nm, with at least one of the turning points being at least 50 nm from base. At least one landing and take-off at an aerodrome away from the base shall be carried out.
  • Assessment of the learner shall include at least 5 take-offs and landings.
  • Assessment of the learner in a helicopter shall include at least 15 circuits. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Interpret the factors that distinguish night flight from day flight. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to: legal, operational and human performance factors. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Requirements prescribed for flight crew to perform night flying are explained according to regulatory prescripts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Requirements include but is not limited to flight crew qualifications and experience.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft equipment required for night flying is identified and described according to regulatory requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment for night flying includes but is not limited to interior and exterior lighting, flight and navigation instruments, cockpit equipment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aerodrome lighting required for night flying is described in terms of their purpose and uses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aerodrome lighting includes but is not limited to approach lighting, runway edge lighting, taxiway lighting, runway end and identification lighting, obstruction lighting, glideslope guidance lighting, Air Traffic Control (ATC) light signals.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The efficacy of night vision is explained in terms of flying an aircraft at night. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Night vision includes but is not limited to anatomy of the eye, physiology of night vision, visual illusions, enhancement and reduction of visual acuity at night.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Fly an aircraft within the airport environment at night. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • During the assessment emphasis is to be placed on adjustment of technique to suit night operations.
  • Flying at night includes but is not limited to the use of instruments, circuit spacing, visual ground references for circuit definition, judgement of glidepath: with and without use of visual glideslope indicators. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Pre-flight checks are conducted in order to prepare for night flying operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Pre-flight checks include but are not limited to operational status of the aerodrome for night flying: lighting operation, aircraft equipment required for night flight.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft is manoeuvred on the ground in order to prepare for take-off, and after landing. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manoeuvring of the aircraft includes but is not limited to the consideration of instrument checks, taxiway guidance lights, ambient lighting, use of landing, taxi and strobe lights.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Take-off is performed at night. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Flying a circuit is performed at night. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Landing is performed at night. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Emergencies and equipment malfunctions are identified in real or simulated scenarios. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Malfunctions include but are not limited to interior lighting, landing light, aircraft systems, emergency landing without power (single-engine aeroplanes only), one engine failure (multi-engine aircrafts only).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Procedures to deal with emergencies and equipment malfunctions during night flying are demonstrated in real or simulated scenarios. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Operational procedures for night flying are described in terms of the regulatory framework. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational procedures include but are not limited to minimum height rules, definition of "night", sourcing of information on night flying facilities, emergency procedures, meteorological conditions: fog formation.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Navigate aircraft at night. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Flight plan is prepared for a night flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation includes but is not limited to waypoints, flight altitudes: regulatory minima for night flight, weather forecasts and reports, serviceability status of navigation aids and aerodrome facilities for night operations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft is navigated in accordance with the flight plan and within general tolerances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Radio navigation aids and interception techniques are used in order to follow the planned tracks. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A traffic pattern at an aerodrome is joined using prescribed procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Aerodrome may refer to an uncontrolled aerodrome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Prescribed procedures include but are not limited to traffic pattern, radio calls.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Emergencies and equipment malfunctions are identified in real or simulated scenarios. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Procedures to deal with emergencies and equipment malfunctions during night flying are demonstrated in real or simulated scenarios. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • The procedures described in the AFM/POH should form the basis for management of emergencies and equipment malfunctions.
  • Malfunctions include but are not limited to emergency landing without engine power (single-engined aircraft only), communication failure, electrical failure, aircraft systems failures.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Engine failure emergency procedures.
  • Practical action plans for use in the event of an engine failure after take-off.
  • A plan of action to be used in the event of an engine failure in the circuit, other than after take off.
  • All applicable checklist items.
  • Radio procedures.
  • Actions to be conducted following a forced or precautionary landing.
  • Normal and abnormal operation of aircraft systems and their status indications.
  • Regulations: Civil aviation regulations in general and applicable to night flight.
  • Operation and use of radio navigation aids: ADF, VOR/TACAN, DME, GPS. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aircraft limitations and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community when:
  • Acting as sole pilot or member of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with Air Traffic Service (ATS) and organising the flight in cognisance to other air traffic. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Planning ahead.
  • Complying with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aircraft within its limits in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Symptoms of instrument, system and engine malfunction. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Radio and cockpit communication are used in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning to clear the area before and while performing night flying manoeuvres.
  • Operation of the aircraft and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Tolerance exceedences are avoided. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Learners who are not competent in the language proficiency standard for ICAO defined operational English at ICAO level 4 will find it difficult to meet licensing requirements.

    Use of distractions during practical assessment:

    Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.

    The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.

    Abbreviations:
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Cockpit Resource Management.
  • AFM: Aircraft flight Manual.
  • POH: Pilots Operating Handbook.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions.
  • ATS: Air Traffic Services.
  • ADF: Automatic Direction Finder.
  • VOR: Very high frequency omnidirectional radio range.
  • TACAN: Tactical air navigation system.
  • DME: Distance Measuring Equipment.
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control.
  • GPS: Global Positioning System.

    Definitions:
  • Airmanship is defined as incorporating the ability to make sound judgements and execution of safe practices.
  • Situational awareness: The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • "Aerodrome" is used synonymously with "airport" and, in the case of helicopters, "heliport". 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.