SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform multi-crew operations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243279  Perform multi-crew operations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  11 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to perform multi-crew operations while complying with national and international regulations and safe flying practice. The learner will be able to use interpersonal skills within an aviation context to relay information to and consult with all roleplayers during a multi-crew operation. This unit standard will also enable the learner to clarify the roles and responsibilities of multi-crew members. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Analyse checklist philosophy and use checklists in a multi-crew operation effectively.
  • Work together as a team to achieve effective use of checklists.
  • Manage crew interaction in order to achieve behaviour that leads to a safe flight.
  • Conduct the assigned role and responsibilities in a multi-crew cockpit.
  • Operate the aircraft as member of a flight-deck crew during all phases of flight. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Fly an aircraft (NQF Level 5).
  • Apply knowledge of the physical environment within the aviation context (NQF Level 5). 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local and international regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures and aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aircraft provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Take off shall be conducted with RVR or visibility exceeding 400m.
  • Landings shall be conducted in actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions at or above Category I ILS minima.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or a multi engine helicopter certified for a minimum crew of two pilots. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    > Range of procedural elements includes but is not limited to, the use of checklists, route navigation charts, crew briefings, radio phraseology, and standard callouts.
    Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flying:

    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Instrument flying:

    > Full Panel 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, - 50 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Asymmetric flight:

    > Limits 5 , +10 - 5 kts, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Analyse checklist philosophy and use checklists in a multi-crew operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The philosophy relating to the checklists in use is analysed and explained in order to ensure the correct use of the checklists. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Required checklists are identified and used in the correct order. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The use of checklists are managed to ensure they are used at the correct time or during the correct phase of flight and completed on time. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Checklists are used in accordance with standard operating procedures and safe flying practices. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Usage includes but is not limited to reading and response.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Work together as a team to achieve objectives stated in checklists. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Team includes but is not limited to commander, flight deck crew and other crew members. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Checklist and standard phraseology are used in accordance with standard operating procedures and design philosophy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Listening, monitoring and feedback are demonstrated to the stage of flight and in accordance with safe flying practice. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Division of duties of pilot flying and non-flying pilot is utilised in order to enhance crew co-ordination and safety. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Manage crew interaction in order to achieve behaviour that leads to a safe flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Conflict situations on the flight deck are resolved in the interest of a productive working environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Critique on the flight deck is given and examined in the interest of achieving the objectives of the flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Cultural diversity is taken into account when handling communications and crew relations on the flight deck. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Deviation from the required flight profile or flight path is communicated timeously and confirmed in order to correct the situation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Conduct the assigned role and responsibilities in a multi-crew cockpit. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Responsibilities include but are not limited to the division of tasks, mutual supervision, callouts, operation of aircraft systems and equipment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Unambiguous verbal communication is displayed in the use of checklists and cockpit communications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Actions performed are monitored by the non-flying pilot and vice versa. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Operation of systems by the non-flying pilot is on command of the pilot flying and is communicated to the pilot flying. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Leadership and fellowship are applied consistent with the function being performed and the phase of flight. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Operate the aircraft as member of a flight-deck crew during phases of flight. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Phases include but are not limited to but include pre-flight, take-off, en-route, approach to land; landing, post flight and any non normal or emergency situation.
  • Operate as pilot flying and pilot not flying. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The flight operation is performed in accordance with standard operating procedures, rules and regulations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures includes but are not limited to, standard operating procedures or recommended operating procedures, normal procedures, non-normal procedures, emergency procedures and supplementary procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Assigned tasks are completed during flight operations to maintain safe flying practices. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft operating limitations are identified and complied with during a flight operation. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • National and International Regulations and procedures applicable to Multi-crew Operations.
  • Checklist philosophy including design philosophy.
  • Flight deck ergonomics with regard to multi-crew operation flight decks.
  • Characteristics, limitations, restrictions and failure modes of equipment applicable to multi crew operations.
  • AFM/POH aircraft type specific technical, limitations and procedural knowledge. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Using checklists in a multi crew operation.
  • Acting as pilot flying (PF) or pilot not flying (PNF) to achieve an effective and safe flight operation.
  • Applying appropriate behaviour that leads to safe flight of a multi crew aircraft. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community by:
  • Acting as an effective member of a flight crew.
  • Dealing with flight crew members and organising the flight in cognisance of other air traffic and operational constraints.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Using the correct checklists during flight operations.
  • Planning ahead to function as a responsible and effective member of a multi crew environment.
  • Organising and managing self as part of a crew so as to comply with appropriate legislation and regulations.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures as part of a crew during flight operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • The philosophy of checklist and the philosophy of designing checklists.
  • The use of checklists in a multi crew operation.
  • The role of a pilot flying PF or pilot not flying PNF during multi-crew flight operations.
  • Behavior that lead to safe flight of a multi crew aircraft. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Using checklists in a multi crew operation.
  • Working as pilot flying PF or pilot not flying PNF in a multi crew environment.
  • Radio and cockpit communication are conducted in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity.
  • Maintaining an open communication environment conducive to effective flight operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Operational restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained.
  • Working together as a member of a crew. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Airmanship:
  • The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:
  • Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Notes:
  • Where the term Cockpit Resource Management is used it also means Crew Resource Management and vice versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment Guidelines:

    > Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of on assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not- flying duties.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Use of distractions during practical assessment - Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • ICAO: International Civli Aviation Organisation.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • PF: Pilot Flying.
  • PNF: Pilot not Flying. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.