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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate how society and socially constructed roles impact on gender attitudes and behaviours and contribute to women's oppression 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
117895  Demonstrate how society and socially constructed roles impact on gender attitudes and behaviours and contribute to women's oppression 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Gender Equality and Women`s Empowerment 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 07 - Human and Social Studies People/Human-Centred Development 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to gain skills, become more aware, and better understand the needs to address Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment which include but is not limited to inequality, discrimination and exclusion based on gender, race, class, ethnicity and sexual orientation. This unit standard provides learners with competencies to demonstrate how society and socially constructed roles impact on gender attitudes and contributes to women's oppression. It also provides a broad knowledge base necessary for change in personal, family and community contexts.

This unit standard will also contribute to increasing levels of effectiveness to ensure that Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment issues are addressed in all sectors of South African Society.

A person credited with this unit standard is capable of:
  • Explaining how societal values and norms impact on gender oppression.
  • Understanding and identifying male dominance and women's oppression in a specific context.
  • Understanding the role of family and institutions in developing gender roles.
  • Explaining how workplace attitudes and behaviours contribute towards discrimination of women.

    This unit standard aims at contributing to the development of competent and professional sectors for the effective delivery of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment. The skills, knowledge, values and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for a positive impact on gender equality and women's empowerment, social and psychological, political and economic transformation and upliftment within South African society. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Communication NQF level 1 or equivalent. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Women empowerment (see glossary) includes but is not limited to the following domains, concepts and activities: empowerment in all spheres of a women's life e.g. political, social, cultural, economic, educational, family, legal; individual rights, education and awareness raising regarding the law; legislation and rights, cultural diversity; economic empowerment; empowerment and awareness of choice; consciousness-raising about oppression; empowerment of individuals in private and public spaces; multiple oppression of women

    Gender equality and gender equity (see glossary) includes but is not limited to the following domains, concepts and activities: to achieve equity in terms of a fair society, recognition of previous disadvantage; equal access to and control over resources; equal access to decision making; transformation of power relations; women's empowerment in the context of women's and men's lives; harmonious relationships between women and men regardless of sexual orientation; positive relationships between women and men, women and women, men and men, girls and boys; equality in terms of femininity and masculinity; portrayal of women and men in the media; preventing the degradation of women through media.; traditional and cultural practices, socialisation of children;

    Contexts include but are not limited to individual, workplace, family, community contexts. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain how societal values and norms impact on gender oppression. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Values include but not limited to respect, honesty, faithfulness, fairness.
  • Norms include but not limited to nuclear family, women as mothers, men as head of families, religion. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concepts of values and norms within specific contexts are explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The concept of gender oppression and discrimination is explained within a specific context using examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Includes but is not limited to early socialisation, home, workplace, community.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effect of gender oppression on the empowerment of women is explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The role of culture in gender oppression and discrimination is explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The role of poverty in gender oppression and discrimination is explained with examples. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Understand and identify male dominance and women's oppression in a specific context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concepts of male dominance and women's oppression are understood and identified in different contexts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The effects of male dominance and women's oppression on families are understood and identified with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effects of male dominance and women's oppression on the community are understood and identified with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effects of male dominance and women's oppression in the workplace are understood and identified with examples. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Understand the role of family and institutions in developing gender roles. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Family includes extended, single parent, nuclear, living arrangements, Early Childhood Development Centres. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The result of gender stereotyping of girls and boys in a family is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Gender stereotyping includes but not limited to roles, expectations, opportunities of girls and boys.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The contribution and reinforcement of gender roles in the home is explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The way that cultural and traditional practices influence gender stereotyping of girls and boys is explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The impact of culture and social practice in institutions on gender stereotyping of women and men, girls and boys is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Institutions include but not limited to schools, religious institutions, media, sport.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The role of power relations in the family and institutions are described and explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to being in marital relations, partners, religious institutions, communities.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain how workplace attitudes and behaviours contribute towards discrimination of women. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Discriminatory practices against women in the workplace are described and explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discriminatory practices include but not limited to pay gap, appointment and promotions, work hours.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The link between the roles of men and women in the home and workplace is described and explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Workplace policies that protect employees are described and explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to UIF, contract, salary scales, work hours, child care, health issues and sexual harassment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The role of power relations in the workplace are described and explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Including but not limited to being in charge, boss and worker, authority and power.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • This Unit Standard will be assessed by an assessor and moderated by a moderator, registered with the relevant accredited ETQA responsible for the quality assurance of this Unit Standard.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider through the appropriate quality assuring ETQA, or Learning Programme approval with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the quality assuring ETQA.
  • Verification (external moderation) of assessment and moderation by the provider, will be conducted by the relevant quality assuring ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant Qualification and the agreed ETQA policy and procedures.
  • An individual wishing to be assessed through RPL against this Unit Standard, may apply to an assessment agency or provider institution accredited by the relevant quality assuring ETQA, or by an ETQA that has a formal agreement/accreditation with the relevant quality assuring ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    1. Names, functions and locations of:
  • Gender.
  • Gender equality.
  • Gender awareness.
  • Gender issues.
  • Gender pay gap.
  • Gender equity.
  • Empowerment.
  • Oppression.
  • Gender roles.
  • Gender structures in government and civil society (national gender machinery).
  • Gender stereotyping.
  • Socially constructed roles.

    2. Purpose of processes and procedures of:
  • Communication.
  • Legislations.
  • Institutions.

    3. Attributes, properties, characteristics related to:
  • Gender sensitivity.
  • Human rights values.
  • Gender stereotypes.

    4. Cause and effect, implications of:
  • Women and women's rights.
  • Equality and women's empowerment.
  • Gender stereotyping.

    5. Procedures and techniques:
  • Self learning.
  • Knowledge transfer.
  • Assertiveness.
  • Life skills.

    6. Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies:
  • The South African Constitution (Bill of Rights).
  • Government policy on human rights and equity.
  • The South Africa's National Policy framework for Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality.
  • Affirmative actions.
  • Employment equity.

    7. Theory - rules, laws, principles:
  • The role of the Liberation and Mass Democratic Movement.
  • Diversity.
  • Principle of Ubuntu.
  • Batho Pele.

    8. Relationships, systems between:
  • Political, legislative, social, cultural and economic systems. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Use of relevant workplace legislation.
  • Dealing with abuse. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community.
  • As a member of a family.
  • In the workplace, community organisations and institutions. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Sharing information.
  • Behaving assertively.
  • Using lifeskills. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information by:
  • Transferring knowledge.
  • Getting feedback. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Sharing information.
  • Getting feedback. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Communicating.
  • Accessing legislation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Understanding Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment within political, social, cultural and economic systems.
  • Transferring of knowledge and making links. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Supplementary Information:

    Glossary of Terms

    Empowerment: Refers to the process of "conscientisation" which builds critical analytical skills for an individual to gain self-confidence in order to take control of her or his life. Empowerment of women is an essential process in the transformation of gender relations because it addresses the structural and underlying causes of subordination and discrimination.

    Equality of opportunity: Refers to a fundamental human right embedded in the Constitution of South Africa. This Gender Policy Framework aims towards the achievement of equality of opportunity, in access to and share of employment opportunities, services and resources as well as in equality of treatment by employers and service providers.

    Equality of treatment: Refers to meeting the specific and distinct needs of different social categories of women and men. This can often involve special programmes and the commitment of additional resources, for example in the case of women and men with disabilities. Equality of treatment does not mean treating all men and all women in exactly the same way (i.e. in a gender blind fashion) as this would only serve to perpetuate existing disparities.

    Gender: In this policy framework document, refers to the social roles allocated respectively to women and to men in particular societies and at particular times. Such roles, and the differences between them, are conditioned by a variety of political, economic, ideological and cultural factors and are characterised in most societies by unequal power relations. Gender is distinguished from sex which is biologically determined.

    Gender awareness: Refers to a state of knowledge of the differences in roles and relations of women and men and how this results in differences in power relations, status, privileges and needs.

    Gender discrimination: The treatment of members of a targeted group less favourably than those of the dominant group; where the targeted group are mainly women and the dominant group are mainly men. Discrimination often occurs when the dominant group determines the access to resources for the targeted group and/or their rights and privileges. Gender discrimination in the public sphere often results in lower wages and fewer job opportunities for women

    Gender equality: Refers to a situation where women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and potential; are able to contribute equally to national political, economic, social and cultural development; and benefit equally from the results.
    Gender Equality entails that the underlying causes of discrimination are systematically identified and removed in order to give women and men equal opportunities. The concept of Gender Equality, as used in this policy framework, takes into account women's existing subordinate positions within social relations and aims at the restructuring of society so as to eradicate male domination. Therefore, equality is understood to include both formal equality and substantive equality; not merely simple equality to men.

    Gender equity: Refers to the fair and just distribution of all means of opportunities and resources between women and men.

    Gender issues: Arise when the relationships between women and men, their roles, privileges, status and positions are identified and analysed. Gender issues arise where inequalities and inequities are shown to exist between people purely on the basis of their being female or male. The fact that gender and gender differences are socially constructed is itself a primary issue to deal with.

    Gender oppression: The experience of undervaluing of what is seen as femininity and masculinity leading to powerless of the targeted group. Because societies support patriarchal norms and male domination, all women experience gender oppression to a greater or lesser degree.

    Gender perspective: Refers to an approach in which the ultimate goal is to create equity and equality between women and men. Such an approach has a set of tools for and guidelines on how to identify the impact on development of the relations and roles of women and men.

    Gender sensitive: Refers to the state of knowledge of the socially constructed differences between women and men, including differences in their needs, as well as to the use of such knowledge to identify and understand the problems arising from such differences and to act purposefully to address them.

    Gender stereotyping: Making generalisations or incorrect assumptions about women and men, girls and boys, based on prejudices and fears; individuals are then judged according to their group identity. This results in privilege and access to resources and rights of a particular group of people based on their belonging to that group and not on their individual or personal characteristics, attitudes and skills.

    Male domination: Privilege and access to resources and rights experienced by men based on their belonging to the dominant group and not on their individual or personal characteristics, attitudes and skills. This results in limited or no access to resources and rights for women who become the targeted group. This unequal access gives men more power than women in a society.

    Socially constructed roles: Learned behaviour in a society and/or community that conditions group members to understand activities, tasks, roles and responsibilities as female and male. Gender roles are learned and change over time and vary according to culture, class, ethnicity, and race. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  66749   National Certificate: Community Development  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 
    Elective  49600   National Certificate: Development Practice  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-05-13  Was ETDP SETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  58761   Further Education and Training Certificate: Early Childhood Development  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 
    Elective  57428   Further Education and Training Certificate: Youth Development  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  ETDP SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. 3 At Work Recruitment Agency 
    2. ABASUNGULI TRAINING SPESIALISTS (PTY) LTD 
    3. Access Employment Skills & Development Agency 
    4. Adelaine Training Solutions Pty Ltd 
    5. Amaqamu Project Management and Consulting 
    6. Amogelang Marketing and Training 
    7. Assessment & RPL College (Pty) Ltd 
    8. Avax Training & Development 
    9. Bangwaketse Trading and Projects 
    10. Barcor Learn to Earn cc 
    11. Berry Rose Project Consultants & Service Providers 
    12. Boikgantsho Consulting & Events cc 
    13. Boitjhorisong Resource Centre 
    14. Bopaditshaba Community Project 
    15. Brain Boosters Business Education (PTY) LTD 
    16. Brainwave Projects 1997 CC 
    17. Breakeven 59(PTY) Ltd 
    18. Browers Entertainment 
    19. Commisioned Training cc 
    20. Compass Academy of Learning 
    21. Custoda Trust 
    22. D M Management and Consulting 
    23. DEVELO CC 
    24. Dintshang Trading 
    25. Directflo 
    26. Early Inspiration 
    27. Early Learning Foundation Montessori Teacher Training 
    28. Early Learning Resource Unit (ELRU) 
    29. EASTCAPE MIDLANDS COLLEGE BUSINESS UNIT (Uitenhage) (WA) 
    30. EBENEZER TRAINING HOUSE FOR EARLY LEARNING 
    31. Edu-Build Development 
    32. EDUTAK PRE-SCHOOL TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 
    33. EDUTEL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PTY LTD 
    34. Elective Training Institute Enterprise CC 
    35. Enjo Consultants 
    36. Environment and Language Education Trust 
    37. Eskilz College (Pty) Ltd 
    38. Fundukuzimela Investments (Pty) Ltd t/a FdZ Investments 
    39. Future Performance Training and Development 
    40. Future-Teacher (Pty) Ltd 
    41. Gauteng Baobab Early Learning Training Programme 
    42. Golang Kulani ELC 
    43. Goldfields FET College 
    44. Grassroots Adult Education and Training Trust 
    45. GWALA TRAINING SERVICES 
    46. Happy Day Training and Development Services 
    47. HOPE ACADEMIC AND SKILL CENTRE 
    48. ICM t/a Institute for Career Management 
    49. Igugu Training and Investments 
    50. Ikusasa Lothisha t/a ECD Training Provider 
    51. Institute of Professional Studies and Services 
    52. Isamon Integrated 
    53. Isamon Vocational College of Excellence Pty Ltd 
    54. Isibani Skills Academy 
    55. Isibani Soluntu Development Trust 
    56. Itireleng Bokamoso Training and Development 
    57. Jabulani Training & Development 
    58. Keletsong Community Training & Resource Centre 
    59. Kgang-Kgolo Consulting 
    60. Khaas Training Academy 
    61. KHANIMAMBA TRAINING AND RESOURCE CENTRE 
    62. Khululeka Community Education Centre 
    63. Kids Academy 
    64. Kitso Bokamoso Training Solution 
    65. KITSO TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 
    66. Klein Karoo Resource Centre 
    67. KWAZULU NATAL EXPERIMENTAL COLLEGE 
    68. LBK Trading 
    69. Leratham Supply Distribution and Enterprise 
    70. Leronsa Trading Enterprise 
    71. LESEDI EDUCARE ASSOCIATION 
    72. Letlhabile Institute Of Management and Training 
    73. Letlhokoa Management Services CC 
    74. Little Elephant Training Centre For Early Educationt/a LETCEE 
    75. Loago Business Consulting 
    76. Lynne Hobbs cc 
    77. Majahd Educational Services Multi-Purpose Primary Co-operative Limited 
    78. Mapheto Business Enterprises t/a MBE 
    79. MASAKANE TRUST 
    80. MASIKHULE EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT CENTRE 
    81. MATHS CENTRE INCORPORATING SCIENCES 
    82. MENTORNET (PTY) LTD 
    83. MIDLANDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE 
    84. Mochochonono Training Solutions cc 
    85. Mopani Development Academy 
    86. Motheo Training Institute Trust 
    87. Motlou Training Development 
    88. NATAL EARLY LEARNING RESOURCE UNIT TRUST 
    89. Ndoma Mathodi Trading Enterprise 
    90. Netgrow Training Solutions 
    91. Networx for Career Development 
    92. New Beginnings Training and Development Organisation 
    93. Nkinane Training Institute and Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    94. Nkqubela Community Developers 
    95. Noni Community Development 
    96. Northern Cape Urban College: Kimberley Campus 
    97. NORTHLINK COLLEGE 
    98. Ntataise Lowveld Trust 
    99. NTATAISE TRUST 
    100. Ntevho-Ketso Training and Recruitement Consultancy cc 
    101. Ntsangalala Business Enterprise 
    102. Orbit FET College - Rustenburg Campus 
    103. Peddie Development Centre 
    104. Peddie Development Culture 
    105. Petra institute of Development (PTY) Ltd 
    106. PHAKAMANI AGENCY CC 
    107. PMA Holding (Pty) Ltd 
    108. PND Academy of Learning cc 
    109. POPUP UPLIFTMENT 
    110. Pro Ed Training 
    111. PROFESSIONAL CHILD CARE COLLEGE PTY LTD 
    112. Professional Development and Training Institute (Pty) Ltd 
    113. Rampadise Education Training & Development Centre 
    114. Realeboga Development Services 
    115. Realeboga-Bakubung Training and Development Agency 
    116. REGIONAL EDUCARE COUNCIL 
    117. Resonance Institue of Learning 
    118. Rhodes University 
    119. Right 4 u College 
    120. Safe and Sound Learning Association 
    121. SANTS College 
    122. Siragelaphambili Abet Skills Development 
    123. SITHUTHUKILE TRUST 
    124. Siyahluma Education Institute 
    125. SIYATHELA EARLY LEARNING ASSOCIATION 
    126. Siyathuthuka Nursery School 
    127. South African Congress For Early Childhood Development 
    128. Southern African Youth Movement 
    129. Spotru Training Centre 
    130. SPS Consulting (Pty) Ltd 
    131. Step Up Training and Skills Development (Pty) Ltd 
    132. Sustainability Institute Trust 
    133. T Mabuya & Associates (Pty) Ltd 
    134. Takatso Educare Training and Development Services 
    135. Teachers Learning Centre PTY LTD 
    136. Tembe Service Providers 
    137. Tendazwau Trading 8 
    138. Thabelanang t/a Thabelanang Trading Enterprise 
    139. THE GMC GROUP PTY LTD 
    140. The Iscariota Group (Pty) Ltd 
    141. The Port Elizabeth Early Learning Centre 
    142. THUKAKGALADI INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 
    143. THUSANANG TRUST 
    144. Thuto Botshabelo Training Academy 
    145. Thuto Ya Setshaba Training Services (Pty) Ltd 
    146. Tiakeni Training Centre 
    147. TLHOAFALO TRAINING CENTRE 
    148. TPN Training and Recruitment cc 
    149. Training and Resources in Early Education (TREE) 
    150. TSHEPANG EDUCARE TRUST 
    151. Ubuntu Care and Development 
    152. Ulwazi Training & Development 
    153. UNIVERSAL COLLEGE OUTCOMES SA 
    154. Vuselela FET College - Potchefstroom Campus 
    155. Winston Academy 
    156. WonderKids Academy 
    157. Wonderkids Montessori Training Centre 
    158. World Wide Education Providers(Pty)Ltd 
    159. Wozabona Early Childhood Community Service Group 
    160. Yellow Media Publishers (Pty) Ltd 
    161. Zuzulwazi Development 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.