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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understanding the process and the variables in the recovery of pulping chemicals 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
114242  Understanding the process and the variables in the recovery of pulping chemicals 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Qualifying learners will be able to understand the operating principles, processes and variables associated with the recovery of pulping chemicals. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
Learners attempting this unit standard are required to be able to understand process descriptions, physical phenomena, process equipment, interacting variables and product properties, it is therefore required that the person is competent in basic scientific theory and is familiar with the operation of pulping chemical recovery operations. 

UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
This Unit Standard covers the following recovery processes: Kraft, sulphite, soda, NSSC. 

Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and processes. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the basic equipment and processes for the recovery of pulping chemicals. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Generic and alternative recovery processes are described, discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Kraft, Sulphite, NSSC, Soda recovery processes.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Equipment used for recovery of pulping chemicals is described, discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Recovery boilers, evaporating equipment, causticising equipment, lime kilns, producer gas equipment, fluidised bed reactors, gas absorption equipment.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The equipment arrangement for the chemical pulping processes is described, discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the inputs to the chemical recovery processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The properties of the spent pulping liquors generated by the pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Solids content, viscosity, residual chemical composition.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Utilities required for the chemical recovery pulping processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Power, steam, compressed air, process water.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. The manufacture and supply of chemicals for all chemical recovery processes is discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Spent liquor, lime, sulphite.
 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the process variables and their interrelationships and effect on product properties for the different recovery chemical pulping processes. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. The process variables and their effect on liquor quality for chemical recovery processes are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Temperature, pH, liquor strength, liquor composition.
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. The interrelationships of the process variables for the different chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained. 

SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the typical process problems. 
OUTCOME NOTES 
Qualifying learners are able to discuss and explain the typical process problems and typical solutions to the problems. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
1. Typical product deviations leaving the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
2. Typical equipment problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
3. Typical raw material problems within the process are discussed and explained and solutions offered. 

ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
4. Environmental impacts are discussed and explained. 
ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
Gaseous emissions, liquid emissions.
 


UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
Things the learner knows and can explain:
Names, Functions and Locations of
  • The equipment pertaining to evaporation, chemical separation by flotation [applied to tall oil], air contact processes for liquor oxidation, combustion processes, collection of combustion products [various processes], gas emission cleaning, concentration by clarification or filtration, operation of lime kilns.

    Description, properties and characteristics of
  • Raw Materials (black or red liquor)
  • Product/s [recovered cooking chemicals]
  • Process Equipment (evaporation, chemical separation by flotation [applied to tall oil], air contact processes for liquor oxidation, combustion processes, collection of combustion products [various processes], gas emission cleaning, concentration by clarification or filtration, operation of lime kilns)
  • A Typical layout of a recovery of pulping chemicals plant for different pulping process configurations.

    The Purpose of the
  • Process in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Causes, effects and implications of
  • The process variables/conditions associated with evaporation, chemical separation by flotation [applied to tall oil], air contact processes for liquor oxidation, combustion processes, collection of combustion products [various processes], gas emission cleaning, concentration by clarification or filtration, operation of lime kiln equipment
  • Raw Material (black or red liquor)
  • Product Variables (cooking chemical properties)
  • Hazards

    Interrelationships
  • Between the variables of recovery of pulping chemicals, the process equipment and process conditions.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Environmental impact of gaseous and liquid emissions

    Theory: rules, principles, laws
  • Length
  • Temperature
  • Combustion
  • Heat transfer
  • Mass transfer
  • Reaction Kinetics
  • Gas solid separations
  • Solid liquid separations
  • Mass balancing 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems
  • Describe typical recovery of pulping chemicals process problems and solutions to these problems
  • Describe the basic scientific theory behind typical processes and problems and generate alternative solutions based on theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage self and activities
  • Participate in life long learning
  • Develop analytic skills in managing process operations 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organize and critically evaluate information
  • Use various sources of information pertaining to recovery of pulping chemicals including basic scientific and engineering theory. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively
  • Give written or oral descriptions pertaining to recovery of pulping chemicals
  • Respond to questions
  • Identify and solve problems 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48645   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Chemical Recovery  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Registered" 
    2007-02-11  Was FPMSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Elective  61949   Further Education and Training Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. MPACT 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.