SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Optimise manufacturing and production processes 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
377001  Optimise manufacturing and production processes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Manufacturing and Assembly Processes 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  NQF Level 05  24 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
119166  Optimise manufacturing processes  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  24   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners credited with this standard will appreciate the importance of optimising manufacturing and production processes by identifying areas for improvement and taking the necessary measures to effect changes. They will be able to identify and solve problems that impede improvement in the manufacturing and/or production environments, using various problem-solving techniques. Once they institute interventions they would need to monitor and evaluate the extent of improvement and take necessary steps to deal with any further problems.

Learners credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Collect and analyse data and identify opportunities for improvement.
  • Identify the root cause of the problem.
  • Solve the problem and generate improvement options.
  • Implement solutions and/or options to achieve improvement.
  • Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the improvement plan. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are competent in Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    This Unit Standard can be used in both manufacturing and production environments. Optimising means to continuously improve the efficiency of the processes within the manufacturing and production plants. It also means developing skills, using resources effectively and reducing overall costs. It requires testing the boundaries of the known and finding new ways of creating and effecting improvement. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Collect and analyse data and identify opportunities for improvement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Sources where data can be found are identified and checked for relevance in terms of the specific process and sector involved. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Sources include but are not limited to historical records, customer complaints, machine process data/records, product data, product specification, test results, workgroup reports, etc.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The data is analysed using appropriate analysis techniques and trends are identified from the analysis. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Techniques include but are not limited to:
  • Grouping and summarising data.
  • Grouping or clustering of results.
  • Graphs, limits (e.g. highs, lows, averages), visual aids (e.g. charts, scatter grams), statistical process control techniques.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Opportunities for improving manufacturing or production processes are identified using the analysis. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Problems preventing/impeding the improvement of manufacturing or production processes are identified and elaborated through the analytical process. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Identify the root cause of the problem. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The problem is anything that prevents or impedes the optimisation of a process and is seen as an area requiring improvement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The problem is defined and explained with reference to the impact thereof on the manufacturing or production environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The problem is examined and identified in terms of problem type, problem parameters and problem components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Possible causes of the problem are listed and analysed in accordance with specified requirements within the manufacturing or production environment to determine the root cause of the problem. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The root cause is analysed/researched and facts gathered are analysed to determine their relevance to the problem. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Gathered facts must also include, where appropriate, verification, current standards (organisational, national and international) and best practice.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The present and desired states are defined so that the difference between them forms the basis for further understanding of the problem. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Criteria defining the desired state are analysed so that the way to solve the problem becomes clearer. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Solve the problem and generate improvement options. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Problem-solving techniques and/or tools appropriate to the nature of the problem are selected and analysed to ensure that consideration has been given to the available problem-solving tools. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving techniques must include, but are not limited to brainstorming, mapping, observation, questionnaires, experiments and consultation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The problem-solving techniques and/or tools are applied considering the criteria for the desired state. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Hypothesising is undertaken to identify tentative solutions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Factors influencing the problem situation are analysed so that the solution(s) is/are seen in a broader perspective and would therefore require a comprehensive solution. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Solutions or options are generated so that a comprehensive picture emerges of the range of possibilities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Solutions or options are researched, analysed and discussed with relevant personnel in order to obtain expert input. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The advantages and disadvantages of the various possible solutions or options are analysed for rating against weighted criteria. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Implement solution or option to achieve improvement. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The solution or option is simulated, trialled and tested, where possible, to ensure efficacy of the solution or option. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The solutions or options are examined in terms of their cost implications and potential savings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A plan is developed for the implementation of the solution or option to achieve improvement or optimisation in an area. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The plan includes, but is not limited to the following:
  • Objectives.
  • Budgets (costs).
  • Resources required.
  • Timeframes.
  • Documentation for any part of the activity.
  • Requisition.
  • Requests.
  • Submissions.
  • Proposals.
  • Anticipated impact.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The improvement plan is motivated to line management and adjusted as per management's input. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    A project team is constituted to manage the implementation of the improvement plan. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The resources required are prepared and responsibilities allocated to selected individuals to ensure successful implementation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Negotiations with other departments are conducted and efforts between departments are coordinated to ensure efficiency in implementation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Communication with all relevant parties is conducted precisely to ensure constructive participation in the implementation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The improvement plan is implemented according to agreed upon schedule. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the improvement plan. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Data is collected, organised and stored as per workplace requirements and procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Data is assessed for accuracy and interpreted to identify deviations, opportunities and problem areas. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Improvements or knock-on effects from interventions are identified and evaluated to determine success and identify trends. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Interventions result in a series of incremental improvements. Evidence of several continuous improvements over a period of 3 - 4 months should be produced. Incremental improvements can be small but need to be sustainable and verifiable. If an intervention did not achieve the desired change but was based on a plausible hypothesis, this should still be regarded as valid evidence since it at least establishes directions which may not yield results. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    All aspects of the implementation is documented and recorded according to workplace procedure so that evaluation can be accurate. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Documentation includes but is not limited to the development of plans, instructions, budgets, proposals; updating of procedures and work instructions; communication documents.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The health and safety of the individuals in the workplace and of the environment is maintained during implementation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Standards are adjusted and updated in accordance with workplace procedure. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Standards include but are not limited to operating procedures, formulations or recipes, settings, training materials, protocols, ordering information.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    A report on the improvements is prepared and submitted to appropriate authority. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Improvements include but are not limited to operational and financial improvements.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Continuous improvement issues are discussed with the workgroup and other partners. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the ETQA policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments at exit points of the qualification, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described both in individual unit standards as well as the integrated competence described in the qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Names and functions of:
  • Sources and types of information.
  • Measures of efficiency.
  • Losses.
  • Factors relating to continuous improvement.
  • Concepts related to statistical process control.

    Purpose of:
  • Information gathering and analysis.
  • Efficiency measures.
  • Continuous improvement.
  • Statistical process control.

    Attributes, descriptions, characteristics and properties:
  • Types of efficiency measures.
  • Types of losses.
  • Various approaches to maintaining or improving efficiencies, e.g. lean manufacturing, TPM, TQM, 5s, 6 Sigma, Kaizan, etc.
  • Properties of materials and equipment which impact on efficiencies.

    Processes and events:
  • Measurement processes.
  • Analysis processes.
  • Problem solving and evaluation processes.

    Causes and effects, implications of:
  • Typical and unusual causes of losses.
  • Implications of inefficiencies, poor working practices, lack of controls, lack of information and skills.
  • Material and equipment-related issues which affect efficiency, e.g. corrosion, degradation, abrasion, wear.
  • Impact of changes.
  • Sequence of actions.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Analysis and research techniques.
  • Methods of collecting, analysing, organising, summarising and presenting data.
  • Methods of testing solution options.
  • Methods for limiting the effects of specific variables.
  • Methods of collecting, analysing, organising, summarising and presenting data.
  • Methods of determining and calculating efficiencies.
  • Problem identification and solving techniques.
  • Fault finding and correction techniques.
  • Quality related procedures.

    Sensory cues:
  • Related to incipient problems (identified by sight, sound, smell, feel).

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards:
  • Reviewing and adjusting standards and operating procedures.
  • Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements.

    Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Summarising data (sum, average, difference, deviations, trends).
  • Scientific principles and techniques.
  • Statistical process control.
  • Relevant mathematics and statistics.
  • Relevant engineering and polymer processing principles.
  • Interrelationship of physical and chemical properties and factors which impact on them.
  • Key concepts of programmes to maintain or improve efficiencies, e.g. lean manufacturing, TPM, TQM, 5s, 6 Sigma, Kaizan, etc.
  • Reasons for intervention failure.
  • Problem identification and solving principles.
  • Process mapping.

    Categories:
  • Types of information.
  • Types of problems.
  • Types of losses.

    Relationships, systems:
  • Impact of interventions on costs (i.e. costs/benefit ratios), performance improvements, safety, health and environmental impacts and the interrelationship between these factors.
  • Output, maintenance and properties of finished product related to costs, sustainability and profitability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Identifying the root cause(s) of the problem. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community to:
  • Solve the problem and generate improvement options.
  • Implement solution or option to achieve improvement.
  • Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the improvement plan. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsively and effectively when:
  • Collecting and analysing data and identify opportunities for improvement.
  • Identifying the root cause of the problem.
  • Solving the problem and generate improvement options.
  • Implementing solution or option to achieve improvement.
  • Monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the improvement plan. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information to:
  • Identify the root cause of the problem.
  • Solve the problem and generate improvement options. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentation to:
  • Implement solution or option to achieve improvement. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that the problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when identifying areas for improvement to optimise every aspect of the entire manufacturing process. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 119166, "Optimise manufacturing processes", Level 5, 24 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  79627   National Certificate: Mechatronics  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  MERSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.