SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Explain the anatomical and physiological functioning of body systems in specific disease states 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
262398  Explain the anatomical and physiological functioning of body systems in specific disease states 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Integrated Health Professions 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services Promotive Health and Developmental Services 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  25 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the causes of disease in the human body and the effect that these disease condition have on the normal functioning of the body.

Learners credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Describe the causes and effects of disease processes in the body.
  • Explain the changes in the anatomy and physiology of the body which result from disease.
  • Describe the effect of disturbances in the balance of the internal communication systems of the body.
  • Explain the relationship between disorders of the human body and its capacity to take in nutrients and excrete waste products.
  • Explain the significance of a compromised defence mechanism for the survival of the body. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 4.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 4.
  • Unit Standard "Describe the normal anatomical and physiological functioning of the human body". 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe the causes and effects of disease processes in the human body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Diseases that affect humans are categorised and described in terms of their common causes, symptoms and effects. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Categories include:
  • Hereditary, congenital, notifiable, acquired, deficiency, neoplastic, degenerative, metabolic, endocrine, immune, neurologic, iatrogenic, idiopathic.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Disease processes are differentiated in terms of their common features and/or characteristics. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Disease processes include:
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalance; oedema; shock; pain: acute inflammation; chronic inflammation; malignant tumours; benign tumours.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The responses of the body due to various disease processes are described in terms of acquisition and associated physiological and structural changes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aetiology of non-infectious disease acquisition includes:
  • Pathogenesis; susceptibility and resistance; clinical manifestations; complications; prognosis aetiology of infectious disease acquisition includes: source of infection - reservoir; mode of transmission - vectors, incubation period; pathogenesis; susceptibility and resistance; clinical manifestations; period of infectiousness; complications; prognosis.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Intervention in disease processes is explained in terms of the role of the intervention in the management of disease processes, treatment options and possibilities for preventive treatment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Mental and emotional disorders are described in terms of their common causes, symptoms and effects on physical wellbeing and protection systems of the body. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mental and emotional disorders include:
  • Affective disorders (depression, bipolar disorders); anxiety disorders (anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); substance abuse disorders (psychological dependence, physical dependence); eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain the changes in anatomy and physiology of the human body which result from disease. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Causes of homeostatic imbalance in the body are described in terms of orientation of body parts and movement of body fluids. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Changes at cellular, tissue, organ and systems levels are explained as causes of homeostatic imbalance in the body. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Changes include:
  • Mutations in cell structure; abnormalities in cell division; impaired transportation of substances across cell membranes; abnormal tissue; abnormal regeneration of tissue; abnormal structure of glands.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Nutritional deficiency is described in terms of its role as a cause of disease. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Abnormal and physiological changes in the body are discussed in terms of their implications for the survival of the body. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe the effect of disturbances in the balance of the internal communication system of the body. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Communication systems include:
  • Blood and lymph transportation; nervous and endocrine systems, including reproductive functioning; special senses. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Abnormalities of blood are explained with reference to their impact on haemostasis. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Structural abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are described in terms of their effect on normal functioning and support of life and lifestyle function, position, pressure, circulation and disease. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Cardiovascular abnormalities and disease include:
  • Malfunction of blood vessels; blockages or impediments in blood pathways; position and functioning of the heart; blood pressure and pulse irregularities; relationship between blood circulation and disease.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Abnormalities of the lymphatic system are described in terms of their influence on the body's defence mechanisms. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Abnormalities of the nervous system are described in terms of their potential to cause internal communication breakdown of the body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Abnormalities of the endocrine system are described in terms of their effect on systems function in the body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Abnormalities of special senses are described in terms of their implications for body survival. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain the relationship between disorders of the human body and its capacity to take in nutrients and excrete waste products. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Intake and output includes respiratory, alimentary and urinary systems and imbalance of homeostasis. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Intake and output disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract are explained in terms of causing homeostatic imbalance in the human body. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Disorders include:
  • Passage of air; disturbance in excretion of waste products from the lungs; mechanism of gaseous exchange and lung capacity; mechanism of inspiration and expiration of gases; loss of control of respiration.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Abnormalities in ingestion, digestion and excretion are explained in terms of disorders of the alimentary tract. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Reduction in or failure of excretion of urine is explained in terms of disorders within the urinary system. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Explain the significance of compromised defence mechanisms for the survival of the human body. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The loss of the protective function of the skin is explained in terms of disturbances in the integrity of the skin. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Disorders include those in the mechanism of external protection; sensory function; absorption, assimilation and excretory functions; maintenance of the integrity of the skin.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The impact of disorders in the internal body mechanisms are explained in terms of the loss of immunity and resistance to infection. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Disorders include those in:
  • Mechanisms of non-specific defence; cellular mechanisms promoting immunity and acquired immunity; general inflammatory response.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Disorders in the musculo-skeletal system of the body are explained in terms of loss of movement and protection of underlying organs of the human body. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Disorders include those in:
  • Composition, development, maintenance and regrowth of bone; segmentation of bone into axial and appendicular skeleton; structure of joints; attachment and enervation of muscles; mechanism of movement; maintenance of the integrity of muscle function.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Disorders in the anatomical structure and functioning of both male and female reproductive systems are described in terms of the implications for procreation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The effects of mental and emotional disorders are explained in terms of their effects on the complete wellbeing of the individual. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Complete wellbeing implies physical (body), mental (mind) and emotional (spirit) wellbeing.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    General disease conditions and disorders of all body systems:
  • Neoplastic conditions in each system.
  • Infections of particular significance for South Africa: Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV/AIDS; TB; Cholera; Typhoid and other enteric diseases; Poliomyelitis; Measles; Mumps; Rubella; Whooping Cough; Malaria; Bilharzia; Parasitic infestations of worms; flukes; scabies; lice; viral hepatitis; Fungal infections - Ringworm, Candidiasis. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems and making decisions using critical and creative thinking are integral to the learning involved with respect to disease conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information is demonstrated in the learner's ability to identify and interpret different body systems and their functions and gather information which points to disease conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations is demonstrated in the learner's ability to process and communicate newly acquired knowledge. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation is demonstrated by the learner's ability to identify the different components of the human body and relate them to how they operate, particularly under diseased conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  65609   National Diploma: Allied Health Therapies  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2012-06-30   


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.