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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Discuss ground movement of aircraft by tow tractors 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
261178  Discuss ground movement of aircraft by tow tractors 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  14 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
All aircrafts have to be pushed and towed, if performed incorrectly, the aircraft can be damaged and flights can be delayed and operators incur huge costs. Learners studying towards this standard will acquire the competencies that will allow them to pushback and tow an aircraft.

Learners credited with this Unit Standard will be capable of:
  • Explaining the responsibilities relating to aircraft movements.
  • Explaining the safety precautions and preparations of aircraft before any movement takes place.
  • Demonstrating generic pushback and towing procedures. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Communication at NQF Level 3. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    This includes tow-bar type and tow-barless type. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the responsibilities relating to aircraft movements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The responsibilities related to pushback are described and explained in terms of safety and standard operating procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The responsibilities related to towing are described and explained in terms of safety and standard operating procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The responsibilities related to movement in airline technical area are described and explained in terms of safety and standard operating procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The responsibilities related to communication during aircraft movements are discussed to ensure efficient movement of aircraft. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Ground to flight deck, ground to tow tractor driver, tow tractor driver to brakeman, communication with air traffic control (ATC).
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain the safety precautions and preparations of aircraft before any movement takes place. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The aircraft is prepared for movement in terms of standard operating procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Pushback and towing equipment is hitched-up according to aircraft manufacturer's instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Towing is performed in and out of confined spaces. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Towing is performed in and out of hangars. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The aircraft is docked in hangar as per specified procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Towing of aircraft without Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) or hydraulics is explained and demonstrated so that the activity can be performed in such circumstances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Lighting required for towing operations is facilitated and, if not available, arranged to ensure safety during the operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Walk around checks of the aircraft are conducted as per procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The maximum turning angles are identified according to procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The procedure to calibrate compass swings is explained in terms of standard procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Aircraft is moved and prepared at ground run bays. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate generic pushback and towing procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The types of equipment used in this procedure are identified to ensure smooth operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The correct tow-bar is selected and used to accomplish the task. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment includes tow-bar, tug, steering isolation pins.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The equipment is connected to the aircraft, taking cognisance of the consequences of a poor connection. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Hand signaling is used to ensure that the procedure is conducted properly and to communicate during the operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Signals include but are not limited to all clear, nose direction, brakes on, brakes off, move forward, engine number, engine rotation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The pull away, turning and stopping of the aircraft on the centre line is explained and demonstrated in accordance to standard procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The aircraft is unhitched on the centre line according to the procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The safety buffer zone procedure is conducted according to procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Clearance is obtained from ground control for the movement of the aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Aircraft is towed to and made safe at the remote stand or technical area. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Aspects to consider are speed, braking turning angles, aircraft size clearances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The towing equipment is disconnected from the aircraft as per procedure. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Responsibilities relating to aircraft movements.
  • Standard operating procedures pertaining to pushback and towing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when pushing back or towing an aircraft. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, community to ensure that the pushback and towing procedures are completed safely and with no damage to property or loss of life or injury. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsively and effectively when performing the tasks of towing and pushing back. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and /or written presentation to ensure that towing or pushback procedure is takes place smoothly. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others by ensuring that no one is harmed in any way and the aircraft is not damaged. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  65010   National Certificate: Aviation Support Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2018-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Lanseria International Airport Pty Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.