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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256354  Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Engineering and Related Design 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
110030  Demonstrate understanding of the water treatment and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry  Level 3  NQF Level 03  10   
246649  Demonstrate understanding of the water and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry  Level 3  NQF Level 03   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners who demonstrate competence as described in the outcomes of this unit standard will be able to understand the water treatment and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry.

The qualifying learner is able to:
  • Explain the water requirements for pulp.
  • Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the water treatment process.
  • Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the effluent treatment process.
  • Monitor and control the water treatment process.
  • Monitor and control the effluent treatment process. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Learners accessing this unit standard will have demonstrated competence against communication and mathematical literacy at NQF Level 2 or equivalent. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • The typical context of this unit standard covers the water and effluent treatment process in any manufacturing or processing environment.
  • Range statements, which are applicable to the unit standard titles, specific outcomes and assessment criteria are found beneath the applicable assessment criteria. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the water requirements for pulp. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The importance of water and effluent treatment in the pulp and paper industry is described in accordance to its impact on the plant, industry and environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The water requirements and effluent generation for various pulping processes are discussed as per plant specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Processes may include any of Kraft, liquor recovery circuits or sulphite processes.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The water requirements and effluent generation for different bleaching processes are discussed as per plant specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Chlorine based processes, non-chlorine based processes, oxygen bleaching process.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The water requirements and effluent generation for different paper making processes are discussed as per plant specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Waste based paper, Kraft based paper, fine papers, tissue products.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Water saving strategies are discussed in accordance with the economical impact of waste. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Strategies include but are not limited to reducing usage, limited washing, re-use, air cooling and employing "second use" methods.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the water treatment process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of the water treatment process is explained in terms of the final product manufactured. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The process principles of the water treatment process are explained by making use of a generic flow diagram. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The process includes but is not limited to filtration, clarification, chlorinators, pumps, filters, screens, biofilters.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The relationship of this functional area is explained in relation to the supplier and customer's processes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The flow of material through the water treatment section is traced and all equipment is identified using standard industry terminology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The functioning of each piece of equipment used in the water treatment section is explained by making use of drawings. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment include but is not limited to chlorinators, pumps, filters, screens, biofilters.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The functions of all chemicals used within the process are explained in accordance to the relevant MSDS. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Chemicals include but are not limited to flocculants, sterilants.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain the fundamental principles applicable to the effluent treatment process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of the effluent treatment process is explained in terms of the final product manufactured. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The process principles of the effluent treatment process are explained by making use of a generic flow diagram. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The process includes but is not limited to primary treatment (clarification), secondary treatment and tertiary treatment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The relationship of this functional area is explained in relation to the supplier and customer's processes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The flow of material through the effluent treatment section is traced and all equipment is identified using standard industry terminology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The functioning of each piece of equipment used in the effluent treatment section is explained by making use of drawings. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment include but is not limited to clarifiers, settlers, filters, biofilters, anaerobic digesters, activated sludge, aerobic digesters.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The functions of all chemicals used within the process are explained in accordance with relevant MSDS. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Chemicals include but are not limited to oxidisers, flocculants, coagulants.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Monitor and control the water treatment process. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Monitor and control the water treatment process according to operational requirements and standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The water treatment process is monitored and parameters recorded in accordance with workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Typical equipment problems within the water treatment process are discussed and solutions offered in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment problems include but are not limited to power failure, clarification problems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The impact of treated water properties on paper quality is discussed in terms of the final product manufactured. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Impact on paper quality includes but is not limited to paper or pulp brightness, chemical consumption, shade variation, charge variation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effects of the process variables on the properties of treated water are discussed in terms of final products and costs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Properties include but are not limited to turbidity, chlorine content, pH, TDS, temperature, settleable solids.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Variations in the product are evaluated and corrective action taken in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Product deviations include but are not limited to discharge license conditions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Log sheets are completed according to prescribed procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Monitor and control the effluent treatment process. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Monitor and control the effluent treatment process according to operational requirements and standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The effluent treatment process is monitored and parameters recorded in accordance with workplace procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Typical equipment problems within the effluent treatment process are discussed and solutions offered in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment problems include but are not limited to clarification problems, excessive solids load, overloading.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effects of the process variables on the properties of effluent are discussed and explained in terms of final products and costs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Properties include but are not limited to pH, conductivity, suspended solids, COD, sodium, temperature.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The impact of effluent treatment on waste generated in the paper manufacturing process is discussed in terms of final products and costs. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The impact of discharging out-of-specification effluent is discussed in terms of final products and costs. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Impact of discharging out of specification effluent includes but is not limited to aquatic life, legal requirement, river pollution.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Variations in the product are evaluated and corrective action taken in accordance with workplace procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Product deviations include but are not limited to discharge license conditions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Log sheets are completed according to prescribed procedures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 3 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency.
  • Only an Assessor with considerable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an Assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions is required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Qualifying learners understand and can:

    Explain the names, functions and locations of:
  • All items of installed equipment.
  • Raw material/s.
  • Finished product/s.

    Describe the properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw material/s.
  • Product/s.
  • Process equipment.
  • Auxiliary equipment.
  • Process system/s.

    Explain the purpose of the:
  • Process, in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality.

    Explain the causes, effects and implications of:
  • Process variables.
  • Raw material variables (suppliers).
  • Product variables (customers).
  • Not complying with quality standards.
  • Not complying with standard operating procedures.

    Demonstrate procedures and techniques of:
  • Monitoring and controlling the process.
  • Recording and reporting data.

    Explain the regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Standard Operating procedures.
  • Quality specifications. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying and addressing variables in raw material quality.
  • Identifying and addressing variables in product quality.
  • Identifying and addressing process variables.
  • Describing water and effluent treatment process problems which are associated with the raw materials and propose solutions to these problems.
  • Bringing deviations into control.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Monitor and control the water treatment process.
  • Monitor and control the effluent treatment process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Maintaining sound relations with co-workers.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Monitor and control the water treatment process.
  • Monitor and control the effluent treatment process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    The learner is able to organise and manage himself and his activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Working to achieve consistent results required by the process/customers.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Monitor and control the water treatment process.
  • Monitor and control the effluent treatment process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Using various sources of information pertaining to the water and effluent treatment processes, including basic scientific and engineering theory.
  • Monitoring and recording process, product and equipment variables.
  • Carrying out physical quality checks and tests.
  • Explaining the impact of non-conforming materials in terms of final products and costs.
  • Describing the relationship of the process to suppliers, customers and the overall water and effluent treatment processes.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations during:
  • Recording of variables and actions taken to rectify.
  • Responding to questions and requests for additional information.
  • Liaising with relevant operational support units.
  • Drawing and interpreting diagrams and sketches
  • Completing relevant documentation in accordance with workplace requirements.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Monitoring the process.
  • Bringing process, product and equipment variables into control.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by:
  • Explaining the purpose of the process as well as the relationship to the supplier and customer's processes.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
  • Understanding the role of water and effluent treatment processes in a processing environment and the effect it has on the growth and development of the organisation, its customers and employees.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 110030, "Demonstrate understanding of the water treatment and effluent treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry", Level 3, 10 credits.
    Supplementary Information:

    Terms and definitions:
  • Standard operating procedures: The documented practice(s) defining the who, what, and when of quality activities.
  • Process: Process means the manufacturing process where a product is manufactured using machinery and equipment with limited guidance or control from the learner.
  • Process and operating specifications: The measurements and indications of all variables monitored during operations including temperatures, pressures, speed, flow rates, power consumption, noise, vibration and visual indicators. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  61971   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Eskilz College (Pty) Ltd 
    2. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.