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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply the fundamentals of hostage, suicide and kidnapping negotiations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256015  Apply the fundamentals of hostage, suicide and kidnapping negotiations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Visible Policing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for learners who take part in hostage and suicide negotiations. This unit standard will enable learners to demonstrate understanding of the importance of communication during hostage and suicide negotiations and how to deal with hostage takers, barricaded persons. This unit standard will also enable learners to deal with kidnapping situations. This unit standard will also contribute to safety in releasing hostages during a hostage situation.

After completion of this unit standard the learner will be able to:
  • Apply the fundamentals of communication.
  • Deal with hostage takers and barricaded persons.
  • Deal with a hostage or kidnapping situation.
  • Handle a suicide incident. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 5. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Apply the fundamentals of communication. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Active listening skills are demonstrated in hostage and suicide related incidents. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Active listening skills include reflection of feelings, emotional labelling, paraphrasing, mirroring, effective pauses and silence, minimal encouragers, "I" message, summarizing, avoiding the twelve roadblocks to active listening.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Communication concepts are applied during in hostage and suicide related incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The types of questions to be asked and negotiation principles to be used in hostage and suicide related incidents are applied in line with the nature of the incident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Non-Verbal communication is interpreted in order to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions in hostage and suicide related incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The steps to problem solving are applied in hostage and suicide related incidents. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving refers to defining the problem in terms of needs, generating possible solutions, evaluating possible solutions, deciding on a mutually acceptable solution, implementing the solution and evaluating the solution.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Techniques to obtain compliance are applied in hostage and suicide related incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Feedback and disclosure are applied in communication strategies. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Feedback and disclosure refers to those two elements of the Johari-window.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Deal with hostage takers and barricaded persons. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The major types of hostage takers are identified in terms of their motives so as to ensure they are dealt with in the correct manner. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An explanation is given of the difference between reluctant and deliberate hostage takers so as to ensure they are dealt with in the correct manner. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An explanation is given of the difference between organised and non-organised hostage situations so as to ensure they are dealt with in the correct manner. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The negotiation strategies are applied when dealing with major types of hostage takers. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    A mentally disturbed person is identified so as to ensure they are dealt with in the correct manner. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Deal with a hostage or kidnapping situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An explanation is given of the phases of a hostage and kidnapping situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An explanation is given of how the behaviour of hostages or kidnappers impacts on actions taken during the incident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Guidelines for surrendering in hostage and kidnapping related incidents are applied so as to facilitate the safe release of hostages. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Time as a tool is applied in the management of hostage and kidnapping related incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The difference between the classic kidnapping and a standard hostage incident is explained so as to ensure the differences are acted on appropriately during hostage and kidnapping related incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    An explanation is given of the roles of the different role-players in kidnapping in terms of their responsibilities. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Role-players refers but is not limited to the first respondent and the co-ordinator.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Handle a suicide incident. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An explanation is given of concepts related to suicide so as to ensure consideration during suicide incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An explanation of the different types of suicide attempts so as to ensure identification during suicide incidents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An explanation is given of suicidal behavior so as to ensure a better understanding of how to deal with suicidal persons. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Suicidal behavior refers to signs, clues, myths and facts of such behavior.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Suicide negotiation guidelines are demonstrated according to organisational policy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    An explanation is given of a potential "suicide by cop" situation in terms of its influence on the safety of a hostage negotiator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Operational actions are applied in order to comply with legal requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operational actions refer to after care for a suicidal person, actions to be taken following a completed suicide incident, actions to be taken following an uncompleted suicide incident.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Active listening skills.
  • Twelve roadblocks to active selling.
  • Types of questions.
  • Association, probing, interpreting, confrontation and attending behavior.
  • Aspects of non-verbal communication.
  • Steps to problem solving.
  • Techniques to obtain compliance.
  • Use of problem words and phrases.
  • Negotiation principles.
  • Johari-window.
  • Communication strategies.
  • Major types of hostage takers.
  • Major motives.
  • Difference between the reluctant and deliberate hostage takers.
  • Negotiation strategies.
  • Major types of hostage takers.
  • Mentally disturbed person behaviour.
  • Difference between organized and non-organized hostage situations.
  • Phases of a hostage situation.
  • Impact on actions.
  • Guidelines for surrendering.
  • Time as a tool in the management.
  • Difference between the classic kidnapping and a standard hostage incident.
  • Role of the hostage negotiator as first responder.
  • Role of the hostage negotiation coordinator.
  • Role of the different role-players.
  • Concepts related to suicide.
  • Different types of suicide attempts.
  • Signs and clues of suicidal behaviour.
  • Differences between the myths and facts about suicide.
  • Negotiation guidelines.
  • Suicide by cop.
  • After care of a suicidal person.
  • Actions to be taken following a completed suicide incident.
  • Actions to be taken following an uncompleted suicide incident. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Dealing with hostage takers and barricaded persons.
  • Dealing with a hostage or kidnapping situation.
  • Handling a suicide incident. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Dealing with hostage takers and barricaded persons.
  • Dealing with a hostage or kidnapping situation.
  • Handling a suicide incident. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Applying the fundamentals of communication in hostage negotiation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Dealing with hostage takers and barricaded persons.
  • Dealing with a hostage or kidnapping situation.
  • Handling a suicide incident. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Dealing with hostage takers and barricaded persons.
  • Dealing with a hostage or kidnapping situation.
  • Handling a suicide incident. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  61729   National Diploma: Policing  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.