SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform take-offs, landings and go-arounds in a multi-pilot aeroplane 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243292  Perform take-offs, landings and go-arounds in a multi-pilot aeroplane 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  14 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to perform take-offs, landings and go-arounds in a multi-pilot aeroplane. These competencies are applicable to Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flights and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flights. Learners will be able to demonstrate flight in both day and night conditions. The learner will be able to perform these competencies within the parameters set by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) and will demonstrate adherence to safe flying practices. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Perform take-offs.
  • Perform landings.
  • Perform go-arounds. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at level 4.
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aeroplane provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except:

    > Take-offs shall be conducted visually, with runway visual range more than 400 m.
    > Landings shall be conducted visually, in meteorological conditions at or above Category 1 minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Range of procedural elements includes but is not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, certified for a minimum crew of two pilots. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aeroplane.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.
  • Full Panel: 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
  • Limited Panel: 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
  • Turns: 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
  • Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.
  • Asymmetric flight (applicable only to multi-engine aeroplane.
  • Heading 5 , +10 / -5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
  • Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Perform take-offs. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Take-offs include but are not limited to short-field take-offs and crosswind take-offs. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Take-off is planned according to prescribed procedures under actual or simulated conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Take-off planning includes but is not limited to: determination of appropriate configuration, calculation of required distances and critical speeds and decisions on normal and contingency procedures.
  • Prescribed procedures include those set out in the AFM and operator's approved procedures.
  • Conditions include but are not limited to: aircraft weight, meteorological conditions, noise abatement procedures and runway conditions.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft is prepared for take-off according to the planned procedure. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aircraft preparation includes but is not limited to pre-take-off checks and procedures, liaison with Air Traffic Control (ATC), briefings and setting of planned configuration.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A take-off is performed using planned procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Simulated emergency and non-normal situations during take-off are managed according to their nature and planned contingency procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Emergency and non-normal situations include but are not limited to: engine failure before decision speed (V1) and engine failure after V1; fire; runway incursion and windshear.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Perform landings. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Landings include short field landings crosswind landings and landings from instrument and visual approaches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Landing is planned according to prescribed procedures under actual or simulated conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Landing planning includes but is not limited to: determination of appropriate configuration, calculation of required distances and speeds and decisions on normal and contingency procedures.
  • Prescribed procedures include those set out in the AFM and operator's approved procedures.
  • Conditions include but are not limited to aircraft weight, meteorological conditions, noise abatement procedures and runway conditions.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft is prepared for landing according to the planned procedure. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aircraft preparation includes but is not limited to pre-landing checks and procedures, liaison with Air Traffic Control (ATC), briefings and setting of planned configuration.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aircraft is landed using planned procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Simulated emergency and non-normal situations during landing are managed according to their nature and planned contingency procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Emergency and non-normal situations include but are not limited to engine failure, fire, runway incursion and windshear.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Perform go-arounds. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Go-arounds include missed approaches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Go-around is planned according to prescribed procedures in the light of actual or simulated conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Go-around planning includes but is not limited to: determination of appropriate configuration and speeds and decisions on go-around flightpath.
  • Prescribed procedures include those set out in the AFM and operator's approved procedures and ATC instructions.
  • Conditions include but are not limited to: aircraft weight; meteorological conditions.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Conditions are analysed in terms of their influence on the decision to continue the approach or execute a go-around. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include but are not limited to ATC instruction, inadequate visual reference to the runway, excessive speed or height of the aircraft, unstable approach and potential runway incursion.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Go-around is performed according to planned procedure to position the aircraft for the next phase of flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Plan is formulated and executed for continuation of the flight in accordance with the prevailing circumstances. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • AFM checks and procedures.
  • Go-around procedures.
  • Missed approach procedures.
  • Definitions of terms associated with take-off and landing distances.
  • Take-off climb segments.
  • Regulations governing take-offs and landings.
  • Noise abatement procedures.
  • Interpretation of aeroplane performance data.
  • Determination of critical speeds.
  • Interpretation of aerodrome charts.
  • Wake turbulence.
  • Aircraft categories. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made by:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aeroplane limitations, operator and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Acting as pilot-in-command of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with ATS and organising the flight in cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Planning ahead.
  • Complying with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limitations and the limitations appropriate to the phase of flight in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse and critically evaluate information by:
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Identifying changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion by:
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning of the environment.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aeroplane in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Appropriate airmanship is displayed.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" is used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturers' instructions or any law.
  • Assessment:

    > The learner is to be assessed in performing take-offs, landings and go-arounds by day and by night under IMC and VMC. IMC may be simulated.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Touch and go landings may form part of the assessment.
    > Learners are expected to demonstrate competency in performing appropriate manoeuvres with one engine simulated inoperative.
    > Assessment shall include at least one take-off with (simulated) engine failure before decision speed; one take off with (simulated) engine failure after decision speed and one go-around with one engine (simulated) inoperative.
    > Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the assessment. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Definitions
  • Airmanship

    The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.
  • Situational Awareness

    The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • Safe practice in flight operations

    Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management)
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation
  • IFR: Instrument Flight Rules
  • IMC: Instrument Meteorology Conditions
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions
  • VFR: Visual Flight Rules
  • V1: Decision Speed 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.