SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Analyse the purpose and functions of large aircraft components and emergency equipment 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243290  Analyse the purpose and functions of large aircraft components and emergency equipment 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  17 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to understand the construction, components and systems utilised in modern large turbine-powered aircraft. This will ensure that learners are able to not only use aircraft components and emergency equipment, but to understand their functioning and operating principles. This knowledge will assist with decision making in unforeseen aviation related instances. This unit standard will benefit learners within the arena of transport aviation and piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Analyse large aircraft airframes and aircraft systems for in-depth support of aircraft operations.
  • Analyse the functioning of pressurisation and environmental systems of large aircraft.
  • Analyse the functioning of electrical systems in large aircraft.
  • Analyse the functioning of power plants in large aircraft.
  • Illustrate the application of emergency equipment on large aircraft. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4.
  • 120152: "Describe small aeroplane components and emergency equipment", NQF Level 5. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • Airframe construction, components and systems utilised in large turbine engine powered civil aircraft.
  • Large aircraft include but are not limited to multi-engine, long-range or inter-continental, high performance and multi-crew aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Analyse large aircraft airframes and aircraft systems for in-depth support of aircraft operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Airframe components are analysed in terms of construction, functioning and limitations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Airframe components include but are not limited to fuselage, wings, control surfaces and stabilising surfaces.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The main components of active systems are analysed in terms of their working principles, functions and elementary principles of hydromechanics. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Hydraulic systems commonly found on aircraft are analysed in terms of their operating principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Non-normal indications in hydraulic systems are identified and analysed in terms of their possible implications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Hydraulic systems only refer to hydraulic systems commonly found on aircraft.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Different power sources for air driven systems are compared in terms of their main components, working principles, functions, control and location. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Air driven systems refer to air driven systems applicable to turbine engine aircraft.
  • Air driven systems refer to but are not limited to: instruments and de-icing.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    De-ice and anti-ice systems are analysed in terms of their construction, function, operations and limitations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Types of fuel systems are analysed in terms of their components and functioning. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Methods for monitoring types of fuel systems are analysed in order to select a monitoring method. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Types of landing gear are analysed in terms of their components, construction, functioning, advantages and disadvantages. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Analyse the functioning of pressurisation and environmental systems of large aircraft. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Environmental systems refer to the physical environment on board the aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Concepts associated with pressurisation and environmental systems within aircraft are analysed to determine how they give in-depth support to aircraft operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Concepts also include usage of applicable terms.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The components of pressurisation and environmental systems are analysed in terms of their characteristics, purpose, functions and operating principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Environmental systems also include pressurisation and air-conditioning systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The operating procedures of environmental systems are explained in terms of environment management in normal and non-normal modes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The functioning of the air-conditioning system and pressurisation systems are analysed to determine physiological effects on passengers and crew. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Analyse the functioning of electrical systems in large aircraft. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Electrical systems includes but not limited to: direct and alternating current systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Concepts associated with the distribution of electric power within aircraft are analysed to determine how they give in-depth support to aircraft operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Concepts also include usage of applicable terms.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The components of electrical systems are analysed in terms of their characteristics, purpose, functions and operating principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components and electrical power distribution systems include but are not limited to: generators, alternators, motors, transformers, rectifiers, resistors, semi-conductor devices, current limiting devices, capacitors, choke coils, lights, measuring devices and indicators, conductors and insulators.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Electric power distribution systems are analysed in terms of their normal and non-normal operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Electrical power distribution systems include but are not limited to: Power sources, wiring, and measurement control and protection devices.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The application of integrated circuits is analysed in terms of their components and functions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Given circuits are interpreted in order to determine combinations of logic operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Analyse the functioning of power plants in large aircraft. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Power plant includes but not limited to: turbine engines, engine systems and auxiliary power units. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Terms and definitions describing turbine engines are analysed to determine how they give in-depth support to aircraft operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Turbine engines refer to but are not limited to turbine propeller, turbine jet and turbine fan engines.
  • Terms and definitions refer to terms and definition used in the operation, status and, performance of turbine engines.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Types of turbine engines are compared in terms of their construction, characteristics, mounting, and operating principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Types of turbine engines are analysed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Power plant auxiliary systems are compared in terms of their components, purpose, functioning and operating principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Auxiliary systems include but are not limited to: lubrication, cooling, ignition, fuel delivery, bleed air, ice protection, reverse thrust, feathering mechanisms, monitoring and control.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Types of propellers are compared in terms of their construction, characteristics, mounting, and operating principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Types of propellers are analysed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The effects of meteorological conditions on engine operation and performance are analysed in terms of their influence on aircraft performance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The operation of power plants is interpreted in terms of normal and non-normal conditions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Illustrate the application of emergency equipment on large aircraft. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Emergency equipment refers to but is not limited to: doors, emergency exits, smoke detectors, fire-extinguishing agents, fire extinguishing systems, fire detection sensors and systems, aircraft oxygen equipment, life jackets and life rafts and emergency locator transmitter. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    On board emergency equipment for large aircraft is explained in terms of regulatory requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    On board emergency equipment for large aircraft is explained in terms of its operating principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    On board emergency equipment for large aircraft is illustrated in terms of its use. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Use refers to but is not limited to: serviceability checking, operation and or deployment, operating procedures, cleaning activities.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Airframe and systems:

    > Components: Fuselage, wings, control surfaces, stabilising surfaces.
    > Construction materials and methods.
    > Structural design.
    > Behaviour of materials and structures under load.
    > Aerodynamic forces and moments.
    > Construction and operation of flight controls.
    > Lift augmentation and wing flaps.
    > Landing Gear.
    > Basic principles of hydraulics and hydraulic systems.
    > Basic principles of pneumatics and pneumatic systems.
    > Environmental systems:
    > Terms and concepts.
    > Cabin pressurisation.
    > Pressurisation system functioning.
    > Pressurisation.
    > Ice Protection Systems.
    > Aircraft Fuel Systems.
    > Aviation Fuels.
  • Electrics:

    > Fundamental principles of electricity and magnetism.
  • Direct current circuits:

    > Power Sources.
    > Circuit components and their behaviour.
    > Direct Current devices.
    > The aircraft structure as an electrical conductor.
  • Alternating current circuits:

    > Power Sources.
    > Circuit components and their behaviour.
    > Alternating current motors.
    > Transformers.
    > Rectifiers and inverters.
  • Logic Circuits:

    > Logical symbols.
    > Switching circuits and logical symbols.
  • Power-plant Propellers:

    > Operating principles.
    > Types of construction.
    > Performance.
    > Control.
  • Turbine Engines:

    > Operating principles.
    > Types of turbine engines.
    > Major Components.
    > Auxiliary Systems.
    > Pressure, Temperature and Airflow in a turbine engine.
    > Reverse Thrust.
    > Performance and Thrust augmentation.
    > Auxiliary Gearbox.
    > Powerplant Operation and Monitoring.
  • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU):

    > General.
    > Ram air turbine.
  • Emergency equipment:

    > Doors and Emergency Exits.
    > Smoke detection.
    > Fire detection.
    > Fire Fighting Equipment and Materials.
    > Aircraft oxygen equipment.
    > Types of aviation fuel:
    > Characteristics.
    > Handling and precautionary measures.
    > Aircraft batteries:
    > Characteristics.
    > Purpose.
    > Function and operating principles.
    > Batteries: lead acid, nickel cadmium, lithium iron, nickel metal hydride. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Applying knowledge of airframes, systems and equipment on an aircraft to manage problem solving and non-normal operations.
  • Using and testing the functionality of emergency equipment on an aircraft. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Identifying symptoms of system malfunctions.
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Applying knowledge of airframes and systems to aircraft operation.
  • Applying knowledge of the principles of electricity and fluid mechanics in order to describe the construction and functioning of aircraft systems. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Understanding the consequences of not using the aircraft systems correctly.
  • Using emergency equipment in accordance with regulatory requirements.
  • Managing normal and non-normal operations in order to ensure the continued safety of flight and minimising the adverse impact of flight on the environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:
  • Airmanship: The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and judgment.
  • Situational awareness: The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • Safe practice in flight operations: Means a systematic and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems and resource management.
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" or vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment guidelines:
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • IMC: Instrument Meteorological Conditions.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Fundamental  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.