SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Command during an emergency/non-normal situation on a large aircraft 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243288  Command during an emergency/non-normal situation on a large aircraft 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will prepare learners to adopt a systematic approach to the mental processes employed as a career pilot to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances within aviation. Learners will be able to use decision-making methodology within stressful situations to enable them to identify risks and hazards for safety purposes. The ability to understand the effect of stress and potentially hazardous attitudes on aviation safety is of paramount importance as career pilots are often responsible for the safety of large groups of persons including passengers and multi-person crews. Career pilots often face stressful situations and potential hazards in their everyday duties, therefore the competencies in this unit standard are directly applicable to them. Decisions and actions need to be taken in a time critical environment. This unit standard will enable learners to do this. This unit standard will enable the learner to understand the dynamics of inter-personal relationship in a constantly changing crew and passenger environment.

This unit standard will equip learners with aircraft commander competencies to consistently determine the best course of action in response to an emergency or non-normality on board an aircraft. Learners will be able to assess situational awareness and use a variety of problem solving techniques and processes in order to successfully deal with emergencies and non-normal situations within an aviation context. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Analyse hazardous attitudes on the flight deck.
  • Review personal decision making during a flight operation or mission.
  • Demonstrate leadership in handling an on board emergency and non-normal situation.
  • Command a problem-solving process. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Unit standard:
  • Fly an aircraft. (NQF Level 5)
  • Display an understanding of resource management in the context of aircraft operations. (NQF Level 5)
  • Apply knowledge of the physical environment within the aviation context. (NQF Level 5)
  • Command a flight operation on a large aircraft. (NQF Level 6) 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures, aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated flight conditions.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:
    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • This unit standard is intended as part of the functioning as commander of an aircraft and for this purpose the candidate must also be assessed as if he or she is the commander of the aircraft.
  • Candidates shall be assessed as if he or she is the commander irrespective of which pilot seat is chosen.
  • Tolerances:
    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flying:
    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Instrument flying:
    > Full Panel 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, - 50 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Asymmetric flight:
    > Limits 5 , +10 -5 kts, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aircraft. (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) certified for a crowd of at least 2 pilots in the case of an aeroplane it shall be fitted with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, integrated glass cockpit or a multi engine helicopter. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
    > Range: Glass cockpit means computerised automated systems and includes but is not limited to EFIS, FMS, AP, engine warning systems.
  • Large aircraft include but are not limited to multi-engine, long-range or intercontinental, high performance and multi-crew aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Analyse hazardous attitudes on the flight deck. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Hazardous attitudes and operational pitfalls are analysed in terms of their impact on the safety of a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Attitudes and operational pitfalls include but are not limited to peer pressure, mind set, the need to "get there", duck-under syndrome, scud running, continuing visual flight rules, "getting behind the aircraft", loss of situational awareness, operating without adequate fuel reserves, descent below minimum en-route altitude, flying outside the envelope, neglect of flight planning, anti-authority, impulsiveness, invulnerability, macho and resignation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Emergency and non-normal situations are analysed in order to determine the correcting and neutralising techniques that will positively affect the outcome of the situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Stress apparent in flight crew members during an emergency or non-normal situation is critically examined in order to determine the possible impact on crew performance and a safe flight operation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Review personal decision-making during a flight operation or mission. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Personal actions and decisions made in flight operations are analysed in order to inform future courses of action and decisions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight operation includes normal, non-normal and emergency situations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Factors which influence decision-making are identified in order to prioritise their importance in a given situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors may include the possibility of crew participation during the decision-making process, mind set and paradigms.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A list of limiting operating conditions or circumstances is developed as a personal standard for safe operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    List includes reference to own personality traits.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Decisions and actions taken during flight operations are critiqued in order to judge own standard of safe operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Critique includes the bringing together of a number of aspects of skills, knowledge, and personality and judgement, comparison with own list of limiting conditions and may contain an evaluative and outcome component. Judging implies a degree of correctness instead of error, of success instead of failure.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate leadership in handling an on board emergency and non-normal situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A given situation is responded to based on the trained problem solving model. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Response includes but is not limited to directing control of the flight controls, leading execution of recall actions if any, communicating the nature of the emergency or non-normal and rapidly regaining control of the flight environment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The factors influencing the choice of responses are analysed in order to inform decision-making on subsequent actions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to impact on flight, time and other constraints, stress, fatigue, fear and risk.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Actions and information are communicated to co-ordinate crew activity in order to establish control of the situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Communication includes but is not limited to the use of standard phraseology, precise terminology, clear statements, requesting clarification when required, verbalising decisions and explaining reasons or intent.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The crew is lead to resolve the emergency or non-normal situation in terms of the trained leadership model. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Command a problem-solving process. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Problem-solving process refers to the trained decision making and problem solving process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Situational awareness is maintained throughout the problem solving process to inform decision-making. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The crew is provided with pertinent information during critical phases of flight in order to ensure safe manoeuvring of the aircraft. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The trained decision-making process is employed to produce timely responses. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • The definition of airmanship.
  • Definition of situational awareness.
  • Definition of safety in flight.
  • Functions and locations of leadership positions in flight operations.
  • Purpose of processes and procedures of flight and airport operation.
  • Cause and effect, implications of non conformance.
  • Procedures and techniques in aeronautical decision making.
  • Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies with regard to flight operations.
  • Theory - rules, laws, principles of flight.
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aircraft.
  • AFM/POH procedures for emergency or non-normal situations that might occur during operations.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Avoidance actions in the event of system failure when operating the aircraft.
  • Prescribed traffic pattern requirements and procedures.
  • Departure and arrival procedures.
  • ICAO Annex 6.
  • ICAO Annex10 Volume 2. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Applying behaviour modification techniques effectively.
  • Appling methodologies to cope with stress.
  • Effecting aeronautical decision making.
  • Leading crew in handling an on board emergency or non-normal situation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Leading crew in handling an on board emergency or non-normal situation.
  • Risk assessment in the flying environment.
  • Aeronautical decision making.
  • Acting as member of a flight crew.
  • Commanding problem solving processes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Recognising personal attitudes that may be hazardous to safe flight.
  • Applying personal behavior modification techniques effectively.
  • Recognising and applying methodologies to cope with stress.
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of own aeronautical decision making skills.
  • Review personal actions and decisions made during a flight operation or mission.
  • Commanding problem solving processes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Personal attitudes that may be hazardous to safe flight.
  • Methodologies to cope with stress.
  • Risk in the flying environment.
  • Aeronautical decision making. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion during:
  • Leading crew in handling an on board emergency or non-normal situation.
  • Aeronautical decision making. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained during flight mission.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained during flight mission.
  • Appropriate airmanship is displayed during flight mission. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions

    Airmanship:
  • The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practice in flight operations:
  • Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Consistently:
  • Where the term consistently is used with regard to assessment or the need to display competence it should be undertaken in accordance with ICAO Standards and ICAO Standard Recommended Practices.

    Notes:
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.

    Assessment guidelines:
  • Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of the assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not-flying duties.
  • The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
  • Use of distractions during practical assessment - Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
  • Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • AP: Auto pilot.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management. (Cockpit Resource Management)
  • EFIS: Electronic Flight Information System.
  • FMS: Flight Management System.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions.
  • IMC: Instrument meteorological Conditions.
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speed. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.