SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform aircrew related aircraft operations at an aerodrome 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243286  Perform aircrew related aircraft operations at an aerodrome 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to perform operations at and in the vicinity of aerodromes during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flights. These learners will be able to perform operations during both day and night conditions. This unit standard will contribute towards safe flying practices in compliance with and adherence to the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)/Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting either with a fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Manage and monitor start-up of engines and aircraft systems.
  • Manoeuvre and manage the positioning of the aircraft on the ground by visual reference.
  • Fly the aircraft by visual reference in compliance with the prescribed traffic pattern requirements. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at Level 4.
  • Mathematics at NQF Level 4.
  • Physical Science at NQF Level 4.
  • Operate an aircraft in the airport environment.
  • Perform aeroplane take-offs, landings and go-arounds NQF Level 5 (for fixed wing only).
    or
  • Perform helicopter air taxi, take-offs, departures, landings, go-arounds and hovering NQF Level 5 (for rotary wing only). 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures, aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aircraft provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Take off shall be conducted visually.
  • Landings shall be conducted in meteorological conditions at or above Category 1 minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    > Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:
    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations.
    If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aircraft, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) certified for a crew of at least two pilots. In the case of an aeroplane it shall be fitted with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or a multi engine helicopter. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.

    Tolerances:
  • The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
  • Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > Full Panel: 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel: 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns: 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.
    > Asymmetric flight (applicable only to multi-engine aeroplane).

    > Heading 5 , +10 / -5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage and monitor start-up of engines and aircraft systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Engines and aircraft systems are started and operated in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) and taking into account prevailing conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Systems include but are not limited to navigation systems, environmental control systems, auto flight control system, flight management system and engine management systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Non-normal and emergency conditions during start-up are recognised and managed in accordance with standard operating procedures and the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    This competency is to be assessed in real or simulated emergencies and non-normal procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The surrounding environment is checked in order to ensure safety during ground operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Environment includes but is not limited to starting, taxing and blast areas.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The start-up is co-ordinated with role-players to ensure safe operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Role-players include but are not limited to airport traffic control (ATC), marshallers, and ground personnel.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Manoeuvre and manage the positioning of the aircraft on the ground by visual reference. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Manoeuvre is limited to prior to flight and after landing and when repositioning the aircraft on the ground. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The roles and functions of the respective role-players are evaluated in terms of their influence on the proposed manoeuvring. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Roleplayers include but are not limited to airport traffic control (ATC), marshallers, ground personnel and other traffic.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Manoeuvring is performed in co-ordination with role-players to ensure safe operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Co-ordination includes obtaining clearance or instructions and orientating with respect to aerodrome layout.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The onboard environment is managed and evaluated to bring the aircraft to readiness for take-off in accordance with standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Managed and evaluated includes but is not limited to completion of cockpit checks, flight deck readiness, personnel readiness, cabin readiness and configuration settings.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Manoeuvring is conducted to suit local conditions in accordance with safe practice. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Suitability to local conditions includes but is not limited to speed, path and technique.
  • Local conditions include but are not limited to wind direction and speed, surface conditions, congestion, ground slope, marshalling signals, look out is maintained, taxiway and runway markings and lights, propeller slip stream/jet blast and right of way rules.
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local regulations, airmanship and standard operating procedures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The avoidance actions in the event of brake, steering or engine failure are identified and explained in terms of safety principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Avoidance actions include but are not limited to engine shut-down and ground loop.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Non-normal and emergency conditions during manoeuvring are recognised and managed in accordance with safe practices. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Fly the aircraft by visual reference in compliance with the prescribed traffic pattern requirements. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Traffic pattern includes visual departure and arrival procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The specific traffic pattern is identified and interpreted in accordance with prescripts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Prescripts include but are not limited to aerodrome information, Air Traffic Control (ATC) requirements, aircraft equipment and limitations, standard operating procedures and Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft is flown in accordance with the identified traffic pattern and within general flight tolerances. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Traffic pattern is adjusted in accordance with prevailing conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include but are not limited to controlled and uncontrolled airports, runway incursion and collision avoidance, wake turbulence avoidance, wind/wind shear, visibility, noise abatement considerations and change of runway in use.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Checks and procedures are performed in accordance with prescribed checklists. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not limited to, standard operating procedures or recommended operating procedures, normal procedures and supplementary procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The onboard environment is managed and evaluated to bring the aircraft to readiness for landing in accordance with standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Managed and evaluated includes but is not limited to completion of cockpit checks, flight deck readiness, personnel readiness, cabin readiness, configuration settings and altimeter settings.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Airmanship is demonstrated and maintained whist the aircraft is being flown in the traffic pattern. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specific observables of airmanship practices include but are not limited to observance of traffic pattern procedures, maintaining spacing from other traffic, flying an appropriate distance from the runway, observance of traffic pattern altitude, correction for wind drift and orientation of the aircraft with respect to the runway in use.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    A critical assessment is undertaken of the adjustments that are required in accordance with the status of the air traffic service provided at the aerodrome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Traffic service includes no service, information service and control service.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • The concept of airmanship.
  • The concept of situational awareness.
  • AFM/POH procedures for starting and operating the aircraft engine.
  • Aircraft systems.
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur during engine start-up.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • AFM/POH checks and procedures for taxi-ing the aircraft.
  • Avoidance actions in the event of brake, steering or engine failure when taxi-ing the aircraft.
  • Prescribed traffic pattern requirements and procedures.
  • Visual departure and arrival procedures.
  • Aircraft towing, push-back and movement on the apron.
  • Aircraft parking including parking geometry and turning circles. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing start-up and manoeuvring of aircraft within the constraints of the aircraft limitations, operator and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Acting as member of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with ATS and organising the start-up and manoeuvring of the aircraft in cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • The start-up of engines and aircraft systems.
  • Manoeuvring and management of the aircraft on the ground.
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Identifying changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the operation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Managing the start-up of engines and aircraft systems.
  • Manoeuvring the aircraft on the ground.
  • Flying the aircraft by visual reference in compliance with the prescribed traffic pattern requirements.
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning before and while performing manoeuvres.
  • Operation of the aircraft and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Operating the aircraft in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Airmanship:

    The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:

    The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:

    Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment Guidelines:
    > Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of an assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not-flying duties.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Use of distractions during practical assessment-Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control.
  • ATS: Air Traffic Service.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CAR: Civil Aviation Regulations.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speeds.
  • IFR: Instrument Flight Rules.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • IMC: Instrument Meteorological Conditions.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions.
  • VFR: Visual Flight Rules. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.