SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Command a flight operation on a large aircraft 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243284  Command a flight operation on a large aircraft 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to adopt a systematic approach to the mental processes employed by an airline commander to consistently determine the best course of action in order to achieve the objectives of a flight. Learners will be able to facilitate decision-making taking into account cultural diversity, flight objectives and safety principles. The purpose of this unit standard is to enable the learner to display the competencies of an aircraft commander.

The purpose of this unit standard is also to provide learners with comprehensive competencies in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM). This will enable the learner to apply and adhere to CRM principles within the parameters prescribed by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)/Military Aviation Authority (MAA). The learners will also be able to adhere to and implement safe flying practices within the aviation environment.

In this context, cognitive skills are defined as the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, for solving problems and for making decisions. Interpersonal skills are regarded as communications and a range of behavioural activities associated with teamwork. These skill areas often overlap with each other, and they also overlap with the required technical skills. They are not confined to one aircraft, but also relate to interface with other aircraft and with various support personnel in order to complete the flight objectives successfully. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Manage crew co-operation and be aware of human factors that could affect the safe conduct of a flight operation.
  • Manage aircraft operations using CRM knowledge, skills and attitudes, and integrate these techniques so as to enhance the safety of a flight operation.
  • Manage threats to and errors during a flight operation.
  • Lead crew to achieve the objectives of a flight. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Fly an aircraft. (NQF Level 5)
  • Display an understanding of resource management in the context of aircraft operations. (NQF Level 5)
  • Apply knowledge of the physical environment within the aviation context. (NQF Level 5) 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • CRM principles refer to but is not limited to the ability to apply cognitive and interpersonal skills needed to manage the flight within an organised aviation system.
  • CRM encompasses a wide range of knowledge, skills and attitudes including communications, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork, together with the sub-disciplines which each of these areas entails.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with ICAO guidelines, CAA/MAA Regulations, operator's approved procedures and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • CRM is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Aircrew shall demonstrate a standard of CRM that consistently achieves the required specific outcomes.
  • Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
  • Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
  • Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flying:

    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Instrument flying:

    > Full Panel 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, - 50 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aircraft is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Asymmetric flight:

    > Limits 5 , +10 -5 kts, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aircraft (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) certified for a crew of at least two pilots. In the case of an aeroplane it shall be fitted with integrated glass cockpit displays, retractable undercarriage, adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
    > Range: Glass cockpit means computerised automated systems and includes but is not limited to EFIS, FMS, AP, engine warning systems.
  • Large aircraft include but are not limited to multi-engine, long-range or intercontinental, high performance and multi-crew aircraft. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage crew co-operation. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Manage includes an awareness of human factors that could affect the safe conduct of a flight operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An atmosphere for teamwork is established in order to enhance crew co-operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Atmosphere includes but is not limited to open communication, participation and recognition.
  • Teamwork includes but is not limited to preparing crew members, directing the crew, leading the execution of planning and co-ordinating team operation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Human factors that may affect the flight operation are analysed in order to determine their possible impact on flight safety. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Human factors include those embedded in a behavioural marker system forming part of the environment being operated within.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Crew awareness of factors that may affect safe flight is monitored in order to determine action plans that will create the required awareness. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to operational factors, physiological factors and human factors.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Apparent condition of flight crew members is considered in order to take the correct action that will maintain a safe flight operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Condition includes but is not limited to perceived physical, mental or emotional condition.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Manage aircraft operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Manage includes using CRM knowledge, skills and attitudes, and integrate these techniques so as to enhance the safety of a flight operation.
  • Integration includes but is not limited to crew environment, cockpit environment and organisational culture. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The flight operation is managed to ensure the crew is operating as a team working toward the achievement of established goals. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Crew includes but is not limited to, flight crew, ground support crew and technical services staff.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Flight crew members' roles are critically examined to ensure flight operation objectives are achieved whilst maintaining crew participation and co-operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Crew authority and assertiveness is managed to ensure participation and co-operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Deviations from required standards are analysed and managed so as to return to a safe state of operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Standards include but are not limited to AFM/POH and standard operating procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Crew member input and contributions are critically examined and responded to in order to benefit from participation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Input includes but is not limited to: Ideas, advice and constructive criticism.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Identified behavioural markers are displayed in the management of crew. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Behavioural markers should include but are not limited to markers identified and validated as those applicable in the Southern African aviation context.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Manage threats to and errors during a flight operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Potential threats to aviation safety are identified and analysed in order to determine their possible impact on a flight operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Counter measures to mitigate the risk of identified threats are managed in order to enhance safety of the flight operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Threats that may pose a danger to a flight operation are managed in order to mitigate such threats. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Danger is when any person's life is threatened or when the loss of equipment is possible.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Crew workload and workload distribution is managed in order to enable crew to perform their tasks effectively during all phases of flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Management includes but is not limited to improving the working environment.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Lead crew to achieve the objectives of a flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The planned flight operation is analysed to identify and optimise financial and environmental impact. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The analysis includes but is not limited to established procedures, potential problems, contingencies, responsibilities, safety issues and operational matters relevant to the flight.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Pre-flight activities of the crew are managed to optimise operational performance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Managed in this context includes displaying the appropriate leadership qualities such as humaneness, empathy, objectivity, transparency, accountability, responsibility, honesty, integrity, assertiveness and consistency.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The crew is lead to achieve effectiveness and congruence with the objectives of a flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Effectiveness includes but is not limited to open communications, planning ahead, ongoing review of flight segments, keeping ahead of critical lead times, anticipating alternate course of actions, completing assigned actions, duties and flight responsibilities timely.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    In-flight changes are managed to achieve alternate courses of action. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manage includes but is not limited to planning, preparing crew, monitoring implementation, progress and evaluating outcomes of plan.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Post-flight briefing of the completed flight is managed in order to ensure a learning experience. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Review includes but is not limited to a review of planning, re-planning, critical review of crew decision making and actions during the flight.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • The definition of airmanship.
  • Definition of situational awareness.
  • Definition of safety in flight.
  • Functions and locations of leadership positions in flight operations.
  • Purpose of processes and procedures of flight and airport operation.
  • Cause and effect, implications of non conformance.
  • Procedures and techniques in aeronautical decision making.
  • Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies with regard to flight operations.
  • Theory - rules, laws, principles of flight.
  • The ability to operate a multi-engine aircraft in VMC and IMC during day and night time and during all phases of flight.
  • An understanding of Crew or Cockpit Resource Management (US at NQF Level 5).
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aircraft.
  • Aircraft systems.
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur during operations.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Avoidance actions in the event of system failure when operating the aircraft.
  • Prescribed traffic pattern requirements and procedures.
  • Departure and arrival procedures.
  • ICAO Annex 6.
  • ICAO Annex10 Volume 2. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Managing crew co-operation and awareness of human factors which could cause incidents or affect the safe conduct of flight operations.
  • Managing team in order to achieve defined flight operations objectives.
  • Managing threats and errors to the flight operation.
  • Leading problem solving within the constraints of the aircraft limitations, operator and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community:
  • During management of crew and the creation of crew awareness of human factors which could cause incidents which potentially affect the safe conduct of flight operations.
  • During management of team towards the achievement of clearly defined flight operations objectives.
  • Acting as pilot-in-command of a flight crew. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Planning for crew and team management.
  • Exercising command ability in order to achieve the desired outcomes.
  • Using CRM knowledge, skills and attitudes to lead and manage aircraft operations, and integrate these techniques so as to prevent the onset of incidents or potential accidents.
  • Managing threats and errors to the flight operation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Human factors which could cause incidents which potentially affect the safe conduct of flight operations.
  • CRM knowledge, skills and attitudes that prevent the onset of incidents or potential accidents.
  • Threats and errors to the flight operation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Managing crew co-operation and awareness of human factors.
  • Leading and managing aircraft operations, and integrating these techniques so as to prevent the onset of incidents or potential accidents.
  • Managing team towards the achievement of clearly defined flight operations objectives.
  • Managing threats and errors to the flight operation.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • Maintaining a high level of situational awareness and safe flying practise during the management of crew co-operation and creation of awareness of human factors which could cause incidents.
  • Using CRM knowledge, skills and attitudes that lead to maintaining a high level of situational awareness, safe flying practice and appropriate airmanship. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions

    Airmanship:
  • The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:
  • Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Consistently:
  • Where the term consistently is used with regard to assessment or the need to display competence it should be undertaken in accordance with ICAO Standards and ICAO Standard Recommended Practices.

    Notes:
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.

    Assessment Guidelines:
  • Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of an assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competencies in pilot-not-flying duties.
  • Use of distractions during practical assessment - Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
  • Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • AP: Auto pilot.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management. (Cockpit Resource Management)
  • EFIS: Electronic Flight Information System.
  • FMS: Flight Management System.
  • IMC: Instrument meteorological Conditions.
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speed.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.