SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform Extended Range Operations within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification areas 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243283  Perform Extended Range Operations within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification areas 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable a learner to perform extended range aircraft operations within minimum navigation performance specification areas. These abilities will be demonstrated within the parameters and comply with national and international regulations. Learners will also be able to demonstrate safe flying practices while performing these aircraft operations. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Evaluate the regulations, procedures, components of and environment in which Extended Range Operations within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Areas are performed.
  • Plan and prepare for flight in accordance with Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations rules and regulations.
  • Manoeuvre and manage the aircraft during extended range flights within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification airspace in co-ordination with all role players and in adherence to all prescripts. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Fly a large multi-engine aircraft in all phases of flight in IMC, VMC by day and by night. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local and international regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures, aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority/Military Aviation Authority Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft Flight Manual/Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aeroplane provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Take off shall be conducted visually.
  • Landings shall be conducted at or above Category I Instrument Landing Systems minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    > Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, route navigation charts, crew briefings, radio phraseology, and standard callouts.
  • Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:
    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines certified for a minimum crew of two pilots. A flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aeroplane.
  • Tolerances:
    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > Full Panel: 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel: 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns: 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.
    > Asymmetric flight (applicable only to multi-engine aeroplane).
    > Heading 5 , +10 / -5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Evaluate the regulations, procedures, components of and environment in which Extended Range Operations within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Areas are performed. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Environment includes but is not limited to: regulations, physical environment, technical issues. This specific outcome forms the essential foundational (theoretical) knowledge for the Unit Standard. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Extended Range Operations (EROPS) and Extended Twin Engine Operations (ETOPS) are evaluated using the prescribed National and International Regulations and Guidance documents. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Required Navigation Performance and Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) Operations are evaluated using the prescribed National and International Regulations and Guidance documents. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Guidance documents include but are not limited to International Civil Aviation Organisation Documents, Airways Manual or International Flight Information Manual.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Components associated with EROPS/ETOPS and RNP Operations are identified and evaluated to establish their limitations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components include but are not be limited to airborne equipment, areas pertinent to EROPS/ETOPS and MNPS Operations including but not limited to Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV) operations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Operational procedures are evaluated for EROPS/ETOPS Operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not be limited to EROPS/ETOPS certification processes, operational approval, operators required maintenance procedures, planning procedures and in-flight procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Operational procedures are evaluated for RNP and MNPS Operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not be limited to operator and flight crew certification requirements, Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP 10) and Required Navigation Performance 5 (RNP 5) approval processes, operational requirements and approval, application of Mach number technique, MNPS Flight Operation and Navigation Procedures, in-flight procedures, and crew training requirements.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Plan and prepare for flight in accordance with Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations rules and regulations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    This specific outcome shall be assessed prior to in-flight operations, and includes all pre-flight activities. The flight may be simulated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Extended Range Operations (EROPS) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) rules and regulations are evaluated and applied in terms of the Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace in which the flight is to be conducted. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Rules and Regulations refer to the National and International legal as well as operators' policies and procedures. The aircraft type/simulator must be suitable for the purposes of the evaluation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aircraft and aircrew documentation and systems are reviewed and system functionality evaluated for compliance to EROPS and RNP flight requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Documents include but are not limited to Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL), flight folio, maintenance documents, aircrew licensing documents, EROPS and/or MNPS performance logs. Systems include the operational systems required for EROPS and MNPS flight.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    MNPS transition areas are identified and procedures considered for the transition into and out of MNPS airspace. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not limited to radio phraseology, plotting procedures, application of Mach number technique, MNPS flight operation and navigation procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Malfunctions or failures affecting EROPS and/or RNP flights are considered and their impact on the flight evaluated and contingencies are compared in order to ensure safe outcomes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    EROPS and/or RNP flights Includes but are not limited to crew actions, radio phraseology, special procedures for in-flight contingencies, fuel restrictions, diversionary flight planning, selection of suitable ETOPS alternate airports and reporting of non-compliance.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Contingency plans are prepared in order to ensure safe outcomes from malfunctions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Contingency plans include but are not limited to Crew actions, Radio phraseology, Special Procedures for In-flight Contingencies, fuel restrictions, diversionary flight planning, selection of suitable ETOPS alternate airports, reporting of Non- compliance.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Manoeuvre and manage the aircraft during extended range flights within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification airspace. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Managing must include co-ordination with role players and in adherence to prescripts.
  • Manoeuvre means turning, climbing or descending in or into MNPS airspace. Role players include aircrew, ATC and other aircraft aircrew. Prescripts relate to national and international regulations and operators procedures. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The onboard environment is managed and evaluated in preparation for entry into MNPS airspace in co-ordination. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Onboard environment management includes but is not limited to: Aircraft system performance monitoring and assessment to meet MNPS compliance, crew coordination, ATC radio instructions and transition procedures, selection of correct routes.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The onboard environment is managed and evaluated during EROPS flight in MNPS airspace in accordance with national and international regulations and in-flight procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not limited to ATC oceanic clearance, oceanic waypoint procedures, navigation in areas of compass unreliability, deliberate deviation from track, navigation equipment error monitoring and correct route selection.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The onboard environment is managed and evaluated in preparation for exit from MNPS airspace in co-ordination. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Management includes but is not limited to aircraft system performance assessment to meet EROPS and MNPS compliance, crew coordination, adhering to ATC radio instructions and transition procedures and selection of correct routes.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums operations are executed within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification airspace. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Non-normal or emergency conditions are recognised and managed in accordance with safe practices during EROPS flight in MNPS airspace. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Non-normal or emergency condition shall be assessed under simulated conditions only! Safety shall be of primary importance during the simulation of non-normal or emergency conditions. Conditions can include but are not limited to engine failure, loss of cabin pressure, navigation system degradation or failure. Managing the failure includes but is not limited to maintaining control of the aircraft, executing correct procedures and checks, communicating situation and intentions to ATC and passenger considerations.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Airmanship is demonstrated and Situational Awareness is maintained whist the aeroplane is being manoeuvred during EROPS flight in MNPS airspace. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Specific observables of airmanship practices include but are not limited to observance of traffic to effect, following the route given during the clearance and observance of equipment performance.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • National and International Regulations and procedures applicable to Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations.
  • Characteristics, limitations, restrictions and failure modes of equipment required for Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations.
  • Operators policy regarding and approved procedures for Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations.
  • Areas of Extended Range and Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Operations.
  • AFM/POH aeroplane type specific technical, limitations and procedural knowledge.
  • Procedures specific to MNPS airspace being used.
  • Crew qualification and training requirements pertinent to Extended Range and Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Operations.
  • Meteorological phenomena associated with Extended range operations.
  • Construction of Extended Range Operation areas of operation.
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aeroplane.
  • Aeroplane systems.
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur during operations.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Avoidance actions in the event of system failure when operating the aeroplane.
  • Prescribed traffic pattern requirements and procedures.
  • Departure and arrival procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aeroplane limitations, operator and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations Rules and Regulations operations.
  • Managing the aircraft during flights within Minimum Navigation Performance Specification airspace in co-ordination with all role players and in adherence to all prescripts. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Planning ahead.
  • Complying with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Using aviation charts where applicable.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limitations and the limitations appropriate to the phase of flight in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Extended Range and Required Navigation Performance Operations.
  • Minimum Navigation Performance Specification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning of the area before and while performing manoeuvres.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aeroplane in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • A high level of airmanship is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Airmanship:

    The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:

    The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:

    Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.
  • Where the term Cockpit Resource Management is used it also means Crew Resource Management and vice versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment Guidelines:
    > Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of an assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not-flying duties.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Use of distractions during practical assessment-Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
  • Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control.
  • B-RNAV: Basic Area Navigation.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • EROPS: Extended Range Operations.
  • ETOPS: Extended Twin Engine Operations.
  • IAS: Indicate Air Speed.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • ILS: Instrument Landing Systems.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • MEL: Minimum Equipment List.
  • MNPS: Minimum Navigation Performance Specification.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • P-RNAV: Precision Area Navigation.
  • RNP: Required Navigation Performance.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.