SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform low visibility operations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243280  Perform low visibility operations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable a learner to pilot a multi-engine aeroplane in low visibility operations. The skills, competencies and knowledge needed to fly an aeroplane with one engine or system inoperative is also addressed in this unit standard.

This unit standard will enable the learner to demonstrate the ability to perform low visibility and all-weather operations in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations whilst operating within the parameters of safe flying practice. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Analyse procedures and the environment to prepare for a flight operation during low visibility conditions.
  • Evaluate information and manage the planning for low visibility operations.
  • Manage the manoeuvring of aeroplane during low visibility conditions.
  • Take-off and depart from an airport during low visibility conditions.
  • Prepare for and manage an approach to and a landing at an airport during low visibility conditions. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Fly a large multi engine aircraft in all phases of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), VMC by day and by night. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Safe practice includes but is not limited to lookout, compliance to rules of the air, local and international regulations, airmanship, standard operating procedures, aircraft flight manuals.
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aeroplane provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Take off shall be conducted according to low visibility procedures.
  • Landings shall be conducted in actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions below Category I ILS minima.
  • Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element. However, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines certified for a minimum crew of two pilots, or a flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flying:

    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Instrument flying:

    > Full Panel 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, - 50 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Asymmetric flight:

    > Limits 5 , +10 - 5 kts, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Analyse procedures and the environment to prepare for a flight operation during low visibility conditions in order to facilitate safe and legal operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Procedures include but are not limited to, standard operating procedures or recommended operating procedures, normal procedures, non-normal procedures, emergency procedures and supplementary procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Equipment characteristics, limitations and uses are analysed in the context of low-visibility operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment includes but is not limited to: Instrument Landing System (ILS), Microwave Landing System (MLS), airborne receivers; automatic flight control systems; synthetic vision systems; radar altimeter; lighting systems and Runway Visual Range (RVR) measurement systems. Characteristics and limitations include accuracy, errors, failure modes and indications. Uses include guidance and decision-aiding.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Weather phenomena impacting on low visibility procedures are analysed in terms of their influence on take-off and landing operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Weather phenomena include but are not limited to: fog; precipitation; ice accretion; low level wind shear and turbulence.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Obstacle clearance requirements and visibility/RVR minima are critically examined to inform future actions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effects of equipment failures are analysed to determine their effect on safe flight operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment failures include but are not limited to ground, on-board and, fail passive and fail operational systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The use and status of on-board equipment for the determination of decision heights and RVR requirements are critically examined to ensure legal and safe operation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Pilot qualification and currency requirements for Low Visibility Operations are determined to inform future actions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Evaluate information and manage the planning for low visibility operations. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    This specific outcome shall be assessed prior to in-flight operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Planning activities include but are not limited to the additional requirements of Low Visibility Operations as set out in the operator's approved Operations Manual. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Low Visibility operations rules and regulations are analysed and applied in the context of aeroplanes meeting specific performance criteria. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Factors affecting Low Visibility Operations are critically examined in order to apply this in planning for such operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to definition of Low Visibility Operations, understanding and interpretation of approach and airport charts, alternate airport planning minima, flight performance, minimum safe altitudes and contingency procedures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Types of malfunctions or failures affecting Low Visibility Operations are analysed to determine their possible effects on a flight operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Types of malfunctions include but are not limited to engine failure, air data computer failure, automatic flight control system failure, navigation aid failure, lighting failures and on-board system failures.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Aeroplane documentation is critically examined in order to determine that requirements are met. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aeroplane Documentation includes but is not limited to documents certifying the aircraft meets Low Visibility Operations requirements, flight folio entries precluding Low Visibility Operations and Minimum Equipment List (MEL) requirements.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Notice to Airmen (NOTAMs) and meteorological reports are critically examined to determine and manage their impact. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Crew briefing or review in respect of low visibility operations is performed for information sharing purposes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Aeroplane systems are set up for Low Visibility Operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Manage the manoeuvring of aeroplane on the ground during low visibility conditions. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Perform manoeuvring in minimum RVR allowable. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Air Traffic Control clearance is obtained and critically examined in order to ensure compliance with laid down procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Taxi charts and departure plates are reviewed and critically examined in order to ensure crew is familiar with and can comply with requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Clearance to taxi and manoeuvre is obtained and examined in order to comply with instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Crew and environment is managed in accordance with authorisation or clearance whilst manoeuvring aeroplane during low visibility conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The aeroplane is manoeuvred in accordance with authorised route or clearance to position for the correct runway. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Take-off and depart from an airport during low visibility conditions. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Perform take-off in minimum RVR allowable. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Take-off to be performed with no system failure and with a simulated failure of a critical system during the take-off phase.
  • System failure before Decision Speed (V1) and after Decision Speed (V1). 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Aircraft is manoeuvred into a position from which a safe take-off can be accomplished. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manoeuvring includes but is not limited to completion of checks, checklists and ensuring system integrity.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The aeroplane is controlled during take-off to remain within the stipulated limitations and comply with laid down procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Control includes but is not limited to trimming the aeroplane (where appropriate), identify and assessing the problem, using the AFM/POH/ perator's recommended checks and procedures, apply retardation devices as appropriate, communicating with ATC as required, communicate with crew and passengers as appropriate, using correct callouts during all phases of the operation, using automatic flight control systems as required and declare an emergency or distress as required.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Departure is managed to maintain safe and legal operation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manage includes but is not limited to complying with departure clearance, departure profile and noise abatement procedures.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Prepare for and manage an approach to and a landing at an airport during low visibility conditions. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Low visibility conditions means Category II or Category III conditions.
  • Approach to landing includes operation with no system failure and with a simulated failure of a critical system during the approach phase. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    National and International Regulations and Procedures governing Low Visibility Procedures are evaluated and applied in order to meet regulatory requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Planning prior to Low Visibility approach is managed to ensure compliance with operator and regulatory requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Planning includes but is not limited to current and forecast weather at destination and alternate airport is obtained and evaluated, status of airport and approach aids at destination and alternate airport is obtained and aeroplane systems are checked.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Briefing of the crew for a low visibility procedures approach is managed to ensure crew and aircraft preparation is completed prior to the approach. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Contents of the briefing includes but is not limited to terrain clearance altitude, fuel requirements, holding patterns, approach procedures, setting of navigation aids, minima, after landing procedures and contingency plans.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A low visibility approach and landing is managed in accordance with safe flying practises and legal requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Assessment of approach and landing includes but is not limited to accuracy of flight path, crew co-operation and callouts, use of AFCS, ATC communication, adherence to automatic/manual landing procedures and limitations, tracking runway centreline, maintaining glide path and application of retardation devices.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    A system failure is managed to ensure safe flying practice and in compliance with regulatory procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Procedures include but are not limited to standard operating procedures, legal requirements and publish aerodrome specific procedures.
  • System failures include but are not limited to non-critical system failure and critical system failure.
  • Managing the failure includes but is not limited to maintaining control of the aeroplane, descending to an appropriate altitude if required, trimming the aircraft, using automatic flight control systems, delegating duties, using AFM/POH/operator's recommended checks and procedures, communicating with ATC, declaring emergency if required, re-planning approach appropriate to the failed engine or system, communicating with passengers and communicating with crew.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • National and International Regulations and procedures applicable to All Weather Operations.
  • Characteristics, limitations, restrictions and failure modes of equipment required for AWOPs, CAT II and CAT III operations.
  • Operators policy regarding and approved procedures for AWOP's.
  • AFM/POH aeroplane type specific technical, limitations and procedural knowledge.
  • Procedures specific to AWOPS and Low Visibility Procedures being used.
  • Crew qualification and training requirements pertinent to All Weather Operations.
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aeroplane.
  • Aeroplane systems.
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur during operations.
  • Air traffic control procedures.
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used.
  • Avoidance actions in the event of system failure when operating the aeroplane.
  • Prescribed traffic pattern requirements and procedures.
  • Departure and arrival procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing low visibility operations within the constraints of the aeroplane limitations, operator and regulatory requireme. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Acting as member of a flight crew during low visibility operations.
  • Communicating with crew members, ATS and organising the flight in cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Planning ahead for low visibility operations.
  • Complying with applicable legislation during low visibility operqations.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limitations and the limitations appropriate to the phase of flight in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective scanning of the environment before and while performing low visibility operations.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aeroplane in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Airmanship:
  • The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:
  • Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Low visibility operations:
  • Means landings in conditions lower that CAT I minima or take-offs with RVR less than 400m.

    Notes:
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment Guidelines:

    > Assessments shall be carried out with the learner acting as pilot flying in all phases of on assessment. The learner shall also demonstrate competence in pilot-not-flying duties.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Use of distractions during practical assessment - Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the practical test. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.
    > Low visibility operations means landings in conditions lower that CAT I minima or take-offs with RVR less than 400m.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • ATC: Air Traffic Control.
  • ATS: Air Traffic Service.
  • AFCS: Automatic Flight Control System.
  • AWOPS: All weather operations.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CAT: Category.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • IMC: Instrument Meteorological Conditions.
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speed.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
  • ILS: Instrument Landing System.
  • MLS: Microwave Landing System.
  • MEL: Minimum Equipment List.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • NOTAMS: Notice to Airmen.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • RVR: Runway Visual Range.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • VOR: Very High Frequency Omni-directional Range.
  • V1: Decision Speed. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.