SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform in-flight manoeuvres in a multi-pilot aeroplane 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243277  Perform in-flight manoeuvres in a multi-pilot aeroplane 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to perform approaches to stalls and subsequent recovery. They will also be able to manage and control the aeroplane during engine failure and demonstrate flight at critical and minimum speed. This unit standard will enable learners to ensure that the aeroplane and its systems are managed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations and Civil Aviation Authority/Military Aviation Authority Regulations.

This unit standard will contribute to the promotion of safe flying practice. Learners will complete this unit standard within the context of transport piloting.

A person credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Manage the aeroplane during an approach to a stall.
  • Manage an engine failure in flight.
  • Demonstrate flight approaching critical speed with asymmetric thrust.
  • Demonstrate operation at minimum speed.
  • Turn the aeroplane steeply. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Fly an aeroplane at NQF Level 5.
  • Apply knowledge of the physical environment within the aviation context at NQF Level 5. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical scope of this unit standard:
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aeroplane and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the AFM/POH.
  • The assessment of the learner shall be conducted both with and without the use of automatic flight control systems fitted to the aeroplane provided for the assessment.
  • Competence shall be assessed under actual or simulated conditions with sole reference to instruments except where noted.
  • Cockpit Resource Management is not to be assessed as a stand-alone element, however, the outcomes resulting from CRM can be assessed. CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
    > Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria.
  • Emergencies:

    > Assessment of the learner in emergency and non-normal operations shall be conducted using simulated emergency and non-normal situations. If a simulator approved by the regulatory authority is available, use of the simulator is preferred.
    > Assessment of the learner in simulated emergencies should be terminated at a point where successful outcome can be judged, and safe recovery to normal conditions can be achieved.
    > Under no circumstances must the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Tolerances:

    > The assessor shall make allowance for environmental conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the type of aircraft.
    > Assessors should not over emphasize staying within the tolerances at the expense of smooth flying.

    > General flying:

    > 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Instrument flying:

    > Full Panel 5 heading, 5 kts IAS, - 50 ft altitude.
    > Limited Panel 10 heading, 10 kts IAS, 100 ft altitude.
    > Turns 10 after initial correction on roll out, 10kts, 100 ft, 10% of correct time for turn.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.

    > Asymmetric flight:

    > Limits 5 , +10 - 5 kts, 100 ft altitude.
    > Aeroplane is balanced to within of the balance ball.
  • Competence shall be assessed in a multi-engine aeroplane, (excluding an aeroplane with centre line thrust) with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines certified for a minimum crew of two pilots or a flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage the aeroplane during an approach to a stall. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Approach to a stall includes but is not limited to an approach to stall during straight flight, during turns, in clean configuration, in approach configuration and in take-off configuration. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Pre-manoeuvre checks and procedures are completed in accordance with operating procedures in order to execute the manoeuvre in a safe manner. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Approach to stall manoeuvre is executed in accordance with laid down procedures and within the limitation of the aeroplane. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Symptoms of impending stall are recognised, analysed and correctly identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Recovery to normal flight is managed to minimise height loss and to remain within 20(degrees) of original heading. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Manage an engine failure in flight. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Simulated engine failure during any phase of flight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Aeroplane is controlled in accordance with laid down procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Control includes but is not limited to airspeed, flight path and altitude.
  • Procedures include but are not limited to, standard operating procedures or recommended operating procedures, normal procedures, non-normal procedures, emergency procedures and supplementary procedures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Engine failure is managed in accordance with laid down procedures and safe flying practice. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manage includes but is not limited to recognition of failure, engine shut-down and engine re-start if applicable.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Remaining engine/s are managed in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)/Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) in order to minimise risk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Aeroplane systems are managed to ensure continued operation in accordance with the AFM/POH. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Systems include but are not limited to fuel system, inoperative systems and alternate systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate flight approaching critical speed with asymmetric thrust. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Recovery shall commence at the first to occur of, loss of directional control or stall symptoms. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Critical speed of the aeroplane is analysed in terms of effects on controllability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aeroplane is prepared for a demonstration to operate at critical speed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation includes but is not limited to safety checks and determination of critical speed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aeroplane is operated at critical speed whilst maintaining control. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Control includes but is not limited to minimum height loss, engine management and remaining within 30 degrees of original heading.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate operation at minimum speed. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Minimum speed refers to 1.2 x stalling speed 5 knots. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Minimum speed of the aeroplane is analysed in terms of aeroplane performance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aeroplane performance includes but is not limited to aerodynamic effects, range of airspeeds.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aeroplane is prepared for a demonstration to operate at minimum speed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation includes but is not limited to safety checks and determination of minimum speed.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Aeroplane is operated at minimum speed whilst maintaining control. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Minimum speed is maintained whilst aeroplane is reconfigured. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Control includes but is not limited to maintaining height and engine management.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Turn the aeroplane steeply. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Steep turning refers to bank angles to minimum of 45 degrees. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Factors affecting steep turning are analysed in terms of their effect on aeroplane performance. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to wing loading, angle of bank, manoeuvre stall speeds, power requirements and pitch attitude.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Aeroplane is prepared for turning steeply. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparation includes but is not limited to safety checks and determination of minimum speed and altitude.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Steep turn is performed with coordinated controls to achieve at least a 45 degree bank angle. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Performed includes entry, maintaining and exit, within the manoeuvre envelope.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Aeroplane systems.
  • Aeroplane performance and limitations.
  • Effects of engine failure on control and performance.
  • Aerodynamics of flight at low airspeeds.
  • Approach to the stall.
  • Stall symptoms.
  • AFM/POH recommended stall recovery techniques.
  • Critical and minimum speed of the aeroplane. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Evaluating information and visible signs during approach to stall recovery and taking the correct recovery action.
  • Recovering from flight operation at critical speed.
  • Recovering from flight operation at minimum speed. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Approach to a stall recovery.
  • Engine failure during all phases of flight.
  • Recovering from flight operation at critical speed.
  • Recovering from flight operation at minimum speed. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures.
  • Using checklists where appropriate.
  • Exercising command ability and manoeuvring the aeroplane within its limitations and the limitations appropriate to the phase of flight in order to achieve the desired outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Identifying symptoms of engine malfunctions.
  • Identify the approach to a stall.
  • Operation at critical speed.
  • Operation at minimum speed. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicating effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion when:
  • Taking the correct recovery action during an approach to stall.
  • Managing an engine failure during flight.
  • Recovering from flight operation at critical speed.
  • Recovering from flight operation at minimum speed.
  • Radio and cockpit communication is in accordance with standard procedures and phraseology to ensure clarity and brevity of communication is achieved.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Proper and effective visual scanning while performing manoeuvres.
  • Operation of the aeroplane and its systems in accordance with the AFM/POH.
  • Taking prompt corrective and appropriate action during approach to stall recovery, operation at critical speed and operation at minimum speed. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness and airmanship are maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Airmanship:
  • The application of the principles of skill, proficiency and discipline. It includes but is not limited to: knowledge of equipment, knowledge of self, knowledge of the environment, risks associated with flight operations, appropriate situational awareness and good judgment. Good airmanship is displayed when there are no intentional deviations from accepted regulations, procedures or common sense.

    Situational Awareness:
  • The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.

    Safe practises in flight operations:
  • Means a systematic, explicit and proactive process that minimises risks to aviation and the public whilst integrating flight operations, technical systems, financial considerations and resource management.

    Notes:
  • Where the term "Cockpit Resource Management" is used it also means "Crew Resource Management" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "non-normal" is used it also means the term "abnormal" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Captain" is used it also means "Commander" and vice-versa.
  • Where the term "Standard Operating Procedures" are used it also means "Operator Procedures" or "Operating Procedures" and vice versa.
  • The terms "airport" and "aerodrome" and "airfield" are used as synonyms where appropriate.
  • The information contained in this unit standard does not supersede any information contained in manufacturer's instructions or any law.
  • Assessment:

    > Assessments shall be carried out with the leaner acting as pilot flying in all phases of in assessment. The learner shall demonstrate competence pilot-not-flying duties.
    > The learner may choose either pilot seat for the assessment, but in either case will be assessed as pilot in command.
    > Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. To strengthen this area of pilot training and evaluation, the assessor shall provide a realistic distraction during the flight portion of the assessment. This will give the assessor a positive opportunity to evaluate the learner's ability to divide attention both inside and outside the cockpit while maintaining safe flight.
    > Assessors must note that Standard Operating Procedures are used as guidance to harmonise and standardise training and a flight operation. Deviation from SOP's or omission of individual items occurs and should be allowed for during assessment if such deviation can be justified. Checklists however, contain critical items and must be followed. Thus deviation from a checklist should only be considered if the nature of an emergency or non-normality dictates such deviation as an appropriate behaviour.

    Abbreviations:
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual.
  • ATS: Air Traffic Service.
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  • CRM: Crew Resource Management (Cockpit Resource Management).
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speed.
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority.
  • POH: Pilot Operating Handbook.
  • SOP's: Standard Operating Procedures.
  • Vsse: Safe single engine operating speed (the speed below which engine failure is not recommended to be simulated).
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  58008   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 6  NQF Level 06  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.