SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Reconstruct an incident scene 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243253  Reconstruct an incident scene 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Forensic Science 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security Safety in Society 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to analyse and reconstruct an incident scene for forensic investigation purposes. The learner will use scientific methods, physical evidence, deductive and inductive reasoning and their interrelationships to gain explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround an incident scene. The learner will be able to use technology and scientific information to collect tangible physical evidence-gather and interpret clues- for possible use in the judicial process. Learners credited with this unit standard will possess detailed knowledge of international forensic standards applicable to incident scene reconstruction.

A learner acquiring this unit standard will be able to:
  • Analyse the incident scene for the purpose of reconstructing the scene.
  • Collate tangible physical evidence.
  • Review the quality of reconstruction scenes in a given situation. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Communication at NQF Level 4.

    The unit standards:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of forensic science: ID 242712.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the specialized fields in forensic science: ID 242708. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Wherever the term "minimise" is used in this unit standard it refers to the elimination of options wherever possible.

    In this unit standard given incident scene may refer to but is not limited to a structured scenario, a case study and a virtual presentation. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Analyse the incident scene for the purpose of reconstructing the scene. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The possible limitations in the reconstruction of a incident scene are recognized in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The application of a scientific method in the reconstruction process is justified in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A model for analysis is conceptualised in order to reconstruct an incident scene. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The event flow of an incident scene is charted and reconstruction using event analysis in a given situation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Collate tangible physical evidence. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Tangible physical evidence includes macroscopic evidence such as, but is not limited to hair; fibres; paint; glass; oils; array of inorganic and inorganic chemicals; fingerprints primer residue body fluids such as blood, semen and sweat. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The incident scene is assessed in order to determine examination methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Examination methods include methods of collecting tangible physical evidence. Assessment includes but is not limited to identifying the possible incident or crime; gathering of information to prevent destruction; what the possible types of trace tangible physical evidence is deposited or physical evidence that may have evidential value.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The use of a forensic light source is demonstrated in order to identify possible body fluids and tangible physical evidence. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Forensic light source may include UV light source.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Tangible physical evidence is collected for forensic examinations taking into account its evidential value. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Collection of tangible physical evidence includes, but is not limited to:
  • Scanning and searching for tangible physical evidence.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Positions and locations of tangible physical evidence are recorded for use in forensic examinations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Recording refers to but is not limited to: hand written notes and photographical images.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Tangible physical evidence is handled according to international standards. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Handled refers to but is not limited to collected, marked and packaged.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Precautionary steps to minimize cross-contamination are analysed to determine which steps to take in a given situation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Precautionary steps include, but are not limited to minimising cross-contamination in DNA; hair; fibres; primer-residue and other trace elements.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Review the quality of reconstruction scenes in a given situation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A reconstructed incident scene is evaluated in order to assess the validity of the final hypotheses used. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Reconstruction methods used are assessed in order to determine their appropriateness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The quality of recorded information is evaluated in terms of its contributing value to the reconstruction. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures.
  • Assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Relevant sections of the following Acts:
    > The Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983.
    > The Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.
    > The Occupational Health And Safety Act 85 of1993.
    > Law of Evidence.
    > Inquest Act.
    > Birth, Death and Registration Act.
    > Occupational Health and Safety Act.
    > Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act.
    > Hazardous Substances Act.
  • Ways and methods used to investigate.
  • Role players at a Incident scene, including and not limited to incident management; investigators; forensic pathology officials; scene and forensic science examiners and other specialists.
  • Different search methods and gathering of information.
  • Cast and lift shoe and tyre impressions.
  • Taking and lifting of fingerprints.
  • A study of the characteristics of light, images and illumination in order to make recordable photos.
  • Application of presumptive forensic examination tests.
  • Videotaping and photography of the incident scene and exhibit collection (to show the approach to the area, street signs, street lights locations and other important object landmarks in relation to the actual scene, street addresses and identifying objects at the scene; of the body and the immediate vicinity around the body; keeping of a photo log; photos of spectators).
  • Identification of latent prints; visible or patent prints; molded or plastic prints and photography thereof.
  • Collection techniques.
  • Principles and demonstrate the use of controls and reference materials.
  • Evidential and intelligence values of information obtained by scene investigation.
  • Detail note keeping of observations (including, but not limited to description of all evidence submitted including, date, time, location recovered and who recovers it; illustrating the chain of custody; listing of evidence in a chronological order and include the exact location of recovery, including measurements).
  • Preventing cross-contamination between tangible physical evidence and persons to the incident scene.
  • Use of a scale during photography.
  • Sketch drawings of the incident scene and where tangible physical evidence was found and of important features such as doors and windows and furniture etc.
  • Handle a body at the incident scene, including but not limited to the notification of the forensic pathology official; visual observations and immediate surroundings; visual identification of defense wounds and location thereof; identifying of tangible physical evidence under the nails; appearance of the body and the clothing; observations pertaining to lividity, decomposition, direction of blood flow patterns (taking the law of gravity into consideration; documenting of the mouth was open or closed; maggot activity; recording the temperature of the body; surface it is lying on; checking underneath the body when it is removed for tangible physical evidence; obtain the ambient temperature).
  • Event analysis:
    > Must consider the role of logic in analysis and informal fallacies encountered in analysis.
    > Collect data and, using all evidence, establish likely events.
    > Establish from the data specific snapshots or event segments of the crime.
    > Consider these event segments in relationship to one another in order to establish related event segments.
    > Order or sequence the event segments for each identified event.
    > Consider all possible sequences and, where contradictory sequences exist, audit the evidence to determine which is the more probable.
    > Determine the final order or sequence of the events themselves.
    > Flow chart the overall incident based on the event and event segments sequencing.
    (All the above is performed according to international and national legal and quality assurance prescripts).
  • Documentation.
  • Scientific methods:
    > Identification of the problem.
    > Collecting and gathering data.
    > To pose one or more hypothesis regarding the problem solving technique for reconstruction.
    > To classify and organize the collected data for interpretation.
    > Testing of the hypotheses.
    > The drawing of a conclusion.
  • Information and evidence in this competency may be considered as synonymous.
  • Model stages:
    > Collection.
    > Evaluation.
    > Assessment.
    > Integration when considering any piece of information.
    > The model should consider the interrelationship between the incident scene, subject and the victim.
  • Limitations:
    > Defining the events surrounding an incident scene with regard to evidence encountered into the following three broad categories: direct evidence; circumstantial evidence; peripheral evidence. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Utilise appropriate standard operating procedures in the field of the Incident scene examinations in a case to achieve desired outcomes, in line with international accepted forensic practice. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team within incident scene examination. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise oneself and one's activities so that all requirements are met in achieving competence in the incident scene examination. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively with others within incident scene examination, as well as external role-players in order to achieve the aims of documentation, report writing and expert witness testimony utilizing the modes of oral and written communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Definitions:

    Incident:
  • The overall crime or occurrence is the incident. The incident encompasses all actions related to the occurrence. Within this incident there are specific events.

    Event:
  • Each event is some part of the occurrence. Each event is defined by small, specific actions taken that are in turn supported by the presence of specific items of evidence.

    Event segments:
  • Each of the smaller actions ("snap shots") in the event is referred to as event segments.

    Event analysis:
  • This is the overall process in the reconstruction attempts to define the crime or incident by establishing the events in the occurrence.(crime or incident).

    Event flow charting:
  • This is the graphical ordering of the events into a logical and supportable sequence in a flow chart. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Fundamental  57977   National Certificate: Forensic Biology  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 
    Elective  57651   National Certificate: Forensic Science  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  SAS SETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. STRATEGIC INVESTIGATIONS AND SEMINARS 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.