SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Undertake differential positioning using a satellite positioning system for hydrographic purposes 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
14439  Undertake differential positioning using a satellite positioning system for hydrographic purposes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Surveying 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 12 - Physical Planning and Construction Physical Planning, Design and Management 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard has been developed for the surveying occupational area and is intended for persons who aim to achieve career advancement by gaining surveying skills leading to a qualification based on unit standards. A person who has successfully completed this unit standard is able to undertake all aspects of Differential Satellite Positioning System positioning for Hydrographic purposes.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Install antennas and receivers
  • Set up a Differential Satellite Positioning System
  • Evaluate positioning from a Differential Satellite Positioning System. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    NQF Level 3 numeracy. Computer literacy. The ability to Monitor a Differential Satellite Positioning System will facilitate better understanding and proficiency in this unit standard.


    Recognition of prior learning
    Any learner wishing to be assessed may arrange to do so without having to attend additional education and training. The learner and assessor will decide jointly on the most appropriate assessment procedure 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Install antennas and receiver 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Job instruction received from appropriate personnel. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Communications ports for Satellite Positioning System receiver and RTCM corrections receiver identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. All cables to various positioning sensors identified. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    A thorough understanding of survey techniques, radio properties and some electronics should be demonstrated.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Applicable task specific legal and safety requirements are understood and explained 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Set up a Differential Satellite Positioning System 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. 2. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. RTCM parameters are set up in the Satellite Positioning System receiver and the RTCM data correction receiver. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Correct operation of the QA/QC software maintained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.7 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Be familiar with quality measures and error sources. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Evaluating positioning from a Satellite Positioning System 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Demonstrate an understanding of how heading, pitch and roll are calculated by an Attitude Determination Differential Satellite Positioning System receiver. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of how ship's heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment? 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of how the RTCM SC104 protocol is used in the positioning adjustment? 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of Standard Deviation, the F-test, W-test, Marginal Detectable Error and Residual. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Kalman filter and how De-skewing works. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Indicate the various identifiers in the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) strings, e.g. GGA. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Use the RTCM tester in a QA/QC package to test RTCM messages and obtain shore station co-ordinates. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Set-up and explain the use of the applicable QA/QC windows in the QA/QC software package. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Be able to calculate the magnitude of angular errors in ship's heading. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    An understanding of the measurement of system accuracies is demonstrated.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard or will assess this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA and register with the FE / HE registrar.
    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures.

    Therefore anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    1. Essential embedded knowledge is dealt with under the specific outcomes section where Display KNOWLEDGE and UNDERSTANDING" is required.
    2. Range statements are included with specific outcomes as necessary.
    3. The following critical cross-field outcomes are covered in this unit standard under the specific outcomes section.
    They are not assessed directly, but are assessed holistically through the outcomes as indicated in the following tabulation. 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Solve problems

    Refer to assessment criteria related to critical outcomes:

    Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.
    Communications ports for Satellite Positioning System receiver and RTCM corrections receiver identified.
    All cables to various positioning sensors identified.
    Range: A thorough understanding of survey techniques, radio properties and some electronics should be demonstrated.
    Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    RTCM parameters are set up in the Satellite Positioning System receiver and the RTCM data correction receiver.
    The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats.
    The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    Correct operation of the QA/QC software maintained.
    Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    Demonstrate an understanding of how ship`s heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment?
    Use the RTCM tester in a QA/QC package to test RTCM messages and obtain shore station co-ordinates. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team/group/organization or community

    Refer to related assessment criteria:
    Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources.
    Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.
    Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    Correct operation of the QA/QC software maintained.
    Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.
    Demonstrate an understanding of how the RTCM SC104 protocol is used in the positioning adjustment? 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organize and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.2 Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources.
    1.3 Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.
    1.4 Communications ports for Satellite Positioning System receiver and RTCM corrections receiver identified.
    1.5 All cables to various positioning sensors identified.
    Range: A thorough understanding of survey techniques, radio properties and some electronics should be demonstrated.

    2.2 RTCM parameters are set up in the Satellite Positioning System receiver and the RTCM data correction receiver.
    2.3 The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats.
    2.4 The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    2.5 The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    2.6 Correct operation of the QA/QC software maintained.
    2.7 Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    2.9 Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    4 Collect, organize and critically evaluate information

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.2 Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources.
    1.3 Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.
    1.4 Communications ports for Satellite Positioning System receiver and RTCM corrections receiver identified.
    1.5 All cables to various positioning sensors identified.
    Range: A thorough understanding of survey techniques, radio properties and some electronics should be demonstrated.

    2.1 Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    2.3 The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats.
    2.4 The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    2.5 The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    2.6 Correct operation of the QA/QC software maintained.
    2.7 Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    2.8 Be familiar with quality measures and error sources.
    2.9 Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.

    3.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how heading, pitch and roll are calculated by an Attitude Determination Differential Satellite Positioning System receiver.
    3.2 Demonstrate an understanding of how ship`s heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment?
    3.3 Demonstrate an understanding of how the RTCM SC104 protocol is used in the positioning adjustment?
    3.6 Indicate the various identifiers in the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) strings, e.g. GGA.
    3.7 Use the RTCM tester in a QA/QC package to test RTCM messages and obtain shore station co-ordinates.
    3.8 Set-up and explain the use of the applicable QA/QC windows in the QA/QC software package.
    3.9 Be able to calculate the magnitude of angular errors in ship`s heading.
    Range: An understanding of the measurement of system accuracies is demonstrated. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    5 Communicate effectively using visual, mathematics and language skills in the modes of oral and written presentations

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.3 Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.

    2.5 The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    2.7 Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    2.8 Be familiar with quality measures and error sources.
    2.9 Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.

    3.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how heading, pitch and roll are calculated by an Attitude Determination Differential Satellite Positioning System receiver.
    3.2 Demonstrate an understanding of how ship`s heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment?
    3.3 Demonstrate an understanding of how the RTCM SC104 protocol is used in the positioning adjustment?
    3.4 Demonstrate an understanding of Standard Deviation, the F-test, W-test, Marginal Detectable Error and Residual.
    3.5 Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Kalman filter and how De-skewing works.
    3.6 Indicate the various identifiers in the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) strings, e.g. GGA.
    3.7 Use the RTCM tester in a QA/QC package to test RTCM messages and obtain shore station co-ordinates.
    3.9 Be able to calculate the magnitude of angular errors in ship`s heading.
    Range: An understanding of the measurement of system accuracies is demonstrated. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically (showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others)

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.4 Communications ports for Satellite Positioning System receiver and RTCM corrections receiver identified.
    2.1 Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    2.2 RTCM parameters are set up in the Satellite Positioning System receiver and the RTCM data correction receiver.
    2.3 The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats.
    2.4 The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    2.5 The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    2.7 Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    2.9 Ensure that all maintenance checks and monitoring is carried out.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.
    3.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how heading, pitch and roll are calculated by an Attitude Determination Differential Satellite Positioning System receiver.
    3.2 Demonstrate an understanding of how ship`s heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment?
    3.7 Use the RTCM tester in a QA/QC package to test RTCM messages and obtain shore station co-ordinates.
    3.8 Set-up and explain the use of the applicable QA/QC windows in the QA/QC software package. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.2 Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources.
    1.5 All cables to various positioning sensors identified.
    Range: A thorough understanding of survey techniques, radio properties and some electronics should be demonstrated.
    2.1 Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    2.2 RTCM parameters are set up in the Satellite Positioning System receiver and the RTCM data correction receiver.
    2.3 The Satellite Positioning System receiver correctly set up for differential maritime operations. This will include output formats, system parameter settings and recording formats.
    2.4 The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    2.5 The performance of the telemetry of differential data-link checked and any errors and their potential effects appreciated and minimised.
    2.7 Poor quality pseudo-ranges and RTCM data identified.
    2.8 Be familiar with quality measures and error sources.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.
    3.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how heading, pitch and roll are calculated by an Attitude Determination Differential Satellite Positioning System receiver.
    3.2 Demonstrate an understanding of how ship`s heading, Pitch and Roll are used in conjunction with offsets in the positioning adjustment?
    3.4 Demonstrate an understanding of Standard Deviation, the F-test, W-test, Marginal Detectable Error and Residual.
    3.5 Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Kalman filter and how De-skewing works.
    3.6 Indicate the various identifiers in the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) strings, e.g. GGA.
    3.8 Set-up and explain the use of the applicable QA/QC windows in the QA/QC software package.
    3.9 Be able to calculate the magnitude of angular errors in ship`s heading.
    Range: An understanding of the measurement of system accuracies is demonstrated. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full development of each learner and the social and economic development of society at large

    Refer to related assessment criteria:

    1.1 Job instruction received from appropriate personnel.
    1.2 Location selected for the Satellite Positioning System antenna and differential data-link antenna with due regard to obstructions, signal to noise levels interference and multi-path sources.
    1.3 Various antennas surveyed and offsets to reference positions calculated.

    2.1 Installation and status of equipment correct and checked once installed. This is to be achieved by understanding tests for signal integrity, signal to noise ratio and update rate of RTCM corrections.
    2.4 The positioning QA/QC database correctly set up.
    2.8 Be familiar with quality measures and error sources.
    2.10 Operational safety rules and standard or operational procedures to be applied.
    Range: An understanding of satellite positioning and the errors applicable to positioning.

    3.4 Demonstrate an understanding of Standard Deviation, the F-test, W-test, Marginal Detectable Error and Residual.
    3.5 Demonstrate a basic understanding of the Kalman filter and how De-skewing works.
    3.6 Indicate the various identifiers in the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) strings, e.g. GGA. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    For an applicant to register as an assessor, the applicant needs:
  • A minimum of 2 (two) years` practical, relevant occupational experience
  • Declared competent in all the outcomes of the National Assessor Unit Standards as
    stipulated by SAQA

    Detailed documentary proof of educational qualification, practical training undergone, and experience gained by the applicant must be provided (Portfolio of Evidence) 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
  • *The relevant information for Theory and Principles are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Training manuals
  • Survey Codes of Practice
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Manufacturers` manuals
  • Standard Task Procedures
  • Risk Assessment Documentation
  • Working Guides
  • Manufacturers` Manuals and Specifications
  • Professional Publications
  • United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association guidelines
  • **The appropriate Statutory and Legal sections are contained in one or more of the following documents:
    * Surface Surveying
  • Land Survey Act and Regulations
  • Professional and Technical Surveyor`s Act
    * Minerals Surveying
  • Mine Health and Safety Act 29/1996
  • Mineral Act (Act 50 of 1991)
  • Personal protective equipment means, but is not limited to, overall, hard hat, safety footwear, hand protection and harness or lifelines.
  • Hazardous and sub-standard conditions mean, but are not limited to, strong wind, rough sea, low visibility and low temperature.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks mean, but are not limited to, water on deck, slippery deck, cluttered deck, ropes and lines stored on deck, heavy moveable objects, power points and anything that might compromise good seamanship.
  • Survey point means, but is not limited to, survey station, beacon, stakes, marks, topography, features, transponder, transducer, responder or combinations of these.
  • Communicated means, but is not limited to, verbal communication, radio transmission and telephone.
  • Multi-path is caused by the GPS signals being reflected from local surfaces (sea, buildings etc.) into the antenna with a time delay caused by their greater path length.
  • Shore station telemetry is the transmission of correction data from the reference stations to the mobile station.
  • The F-test is a statistical test that is a measure of the overall fit of the observations to the model.
  • The W-test is used to prove the null hypothesis by testing it against a series of alternative hypotheses. It is a test for outliers.
  • The Marginal Detectable Error (MDE) is defined as the smallest error that can be found by the W-test with a certain probability (UKOOA recommend 80%).
  • Kalman filter is the mathematical statistical processing of available (positioning) information. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  20487   National Certificate: Hydrographic Surveying  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. IZWE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.