SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
123356  Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food Manufacturing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9186  Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30   
9188  Manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer  Level 4  NQF Level 04  30   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for anyone who has to manufacture an instant or non-instant food powder from an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the manufacturing of a spray dried food powder.
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer.
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer.
  • Perform end of drying procedures.

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the food manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the food manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:

    Communication and mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3.
    Cleaning-in-place and cleaning out-of-place.
    Evaporation of a liquid food product by means of a falling or rising film evaporator. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    In the context of this unit standard, spray drying refers to single-stage, two-stage or three-stage spray drying during which a food powder is manufactured. Food powder refers to instant or non-instant food powder. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the manufacturing of a spray dried food powder. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of manufacturing food powders is explained according to standard food principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • The advantages of food powders to consumers and manufacturers.
  • The effect of drying on the shelf life and sensory quality of the final product.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The main stages (steps) during the manufacturing of a spray dried food powder are identified and described according to standard food principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The methods and principles of spray drying for the manufacturing of a food powder are identified and described according to standard food principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Spray drying includes:
  • Single-stage spray drying.
  • Two-stage spray drying combined with fluid bed drying.
  • Three-stage spray drying with an integrated fluid bed or integrated belt.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The operating principles of the spray dryer are explained according to standard operating and manufacturer's principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Spray dryers include:
  • Single-stage spray dryers.
  • Two-stage spray dryers combined with a fluid bed.
  • Three-stage spray drying with an integrated fluid bed or integrated belt.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The components of the site-specific spray drying system are identified and the function of each component is explained according to standard operating and manufacturer's principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components include:

    Single- and two-stage:
  • Drying chamber
  • Air heater
  • Food concerntrate tank
  • High pressure pump
  • Atomiser
  • Cyclones
  • Air suction fans and filters
  • Vibrating fluid bed (only two-stage)

    Three-stage:
  • Primary and final drying chambers
  • Retention and cooling chambers
  • High pressure feed pump
  • Nozzle arrangement
  • Heater/cooler
  • Air distributor
  • Belt/fluid bed assembly
  • Powder discharge
  • Cyclone arrangement
  • Fans and heat recovery system
  • Sifting system
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The site-specific spray drying process, with its parameters, is described and explained according to standard food principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Instantising is defined and explained according to standard food principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition and explanation refer to:
  • The purpose of the instantising.
  • The principlesof instantising.
  • A definition of agglomeration.
  • Equipment (with components and their functions) and processes applied for instantising and agglomeration.
  • The purpose of lecithinising and the process followed to lecithinise powder.
  • Factors that influence agglomeration and particle size.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The importance of evaporation of the mixture prior to spray drying is explained according to standard food principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The production plan is obtained and interpreted according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Personal preparation is done according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparations include:
  • Hygiene practices.
  • Wearing of protective clothing and safety gear.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The equipment and work area are prepared according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The evaporated mixture intended for drying is obtained and checked according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The evaporated mixture intended for drying conforms to site-specifications and is released accordingly and according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The relevant parameters are set according to standard operating procedures and site specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The reasons for specific values of the different parameters are explained according to standard food principles and the manufacturer's specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The equipment is started up according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Problems during start up are solved within scope of work. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The evaporated mixture is dried according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Equipment is handled according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Parameters for drying are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Samples are taken and are sent for analysis according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Results of sample analysis are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the efficiency of drying and the conformance of the powder to legal and site-specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The final powder conforms to legal and site-specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Problems during spray drying are solved within scope of work. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Sub-standard product is handled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Problems during spray drying are solved within scope of work. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Perform end of drying procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A changeover is performed according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    First line maintenance is performed according to standard operating procedures and within scope of work. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    First line maintenance includes:
  • Cleaning and sanitising of equipment and work area.
  • Inspection of equipment.
  • All other maintenance functions as required within the learner's scope of work.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Records of the manufacturing process are kept in accordance with standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The equipment is shut down according to standard operating procedures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor or moderator respectively with the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA), or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal (provider-based) and external (ETQA-based) moderation of assessment, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment against this unit standard should encompass achievement of competencies described in the individual unit standard and may encompass achievement of integrated competencies with other unit standard(s).
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying and solving problems within scope of work.

    Evident in specific outcomes:
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer.
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Synchronising the spray drying process with other production actions.

    Evident in specific outcome:
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Preparing for spray drying.

    Evident in specific outcome:
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Taking samples and evaluating the results.

    Evident in specific outcome:
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Keeping records.

    Evident in specific outcomes:
  • Perform end of drying procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Working according to safety requirements.

    Evident in specific outcomes:
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer.
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer.
  • Perform end of drying procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Identifying and solving problems within scope of work.

    Evident in specific outcomes:
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer.
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in specific outcomes:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the manufacturing of a spray dried food powder.
  • Prepare to manufacture a food powder by means of a spray dryer.
  • Dry an evaporated mixture by means of a spray dryer.
  • Perform end of drying procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standards:
  • 9186, "Manufacture a spray dried food powder from an evaporated mixture", Level 4, 30 credits.
  • 9188, "Manufacture instant food powder by means of a spray dryer", Level 4, 30 credits.

    Supplementary Information:
  • Legal requirements:

    Where applicable, the following acts, current and future regulations and amendments should be considered:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972.
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977.
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993.
  • Other industry specific Acts.

    Where applicable, the following International and National Standards should be considered:
  • SANS 1049 - Food Hygiene Management.
  • SANS 10330 - Requirements for a HACCP system.
  • ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for organisations throughout the food chain.
  • ISO 9001 - Quality Management System - Requirements.

    Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology: Clarification/ explanation/ definition
  • Three-stage spray drying: Refers to an extended two-stage spray drying system in which the second drying stage is transferred into the base of the spray drying chamber, while the final drying and cooling is conducted in the third stage located outside the drying chamber. There are two types of tree-stage spray dryers, namely those with an integrated fluid bed and those with an integrated belt, both used for the final drying and cooling stage.
  • Single-stage spray drying system: Refers to a spray drying system that consists of a spray drying chamber with a pneumatic conveying system (cyclone/s).
  • Standard operating procedures: Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal safety and food safety practices and procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications.
  • Two-stage spray drying system: Refers to a spray drying system that consists of a spray drying chamber, cyclones and a fluid bed attachment. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50306   Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2018-07-26  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FMCG Training Solutions CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.