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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
123307  Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food Manufacturing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  20 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9171  Coagulate milk for cheese manufacturing  Level 4  NQF Level 04   
9172  Coagulate a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product  Level 4  NQF Level 04   
9178  Manufacture yogurt and another fermented dairy product  Level 4  NQF Level 04  15   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for anyone who has to produce a coagulum from pasteurised and standardised milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product. A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of coagulation during fermented dairy product manufacturing.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the methods of coagulation for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
  • Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture.
  • Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
  • Perform end of coagulation procedures.

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
  • Communication and mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Standardisation, pasteurisation and homogenisation.
  • Cleaning out of place (COP) and cleaning in place (CIP).
  • Representative sampling for quality control purposes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    In the context of this unit standard, fermented dairy products include yoghurt, buttermilk, maas, sour cream and all types of cheese. A dairy mixture also includes cheese whey. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Different methods of starter culture application for fermented dairy products manufacturing, with their advantages and disadvantages, are described according to standard dairy and microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Different methods of application include:
  • Reserve stock, mother, daughter (intermediate) and bulk (working) cultures.
  • Starter prepared from a concentrated deep frozen or freeze dried culture.
  • DVI-culture.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A starter culture is defined according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The functions of a starter culture in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products are explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • Acid production (glycolysis), where applicable.
  • Aroma production (proteolysis and lipolysis), where applicable.
  • Enzyme production, where applicable.
  • Gas production, where applicable.
  • Symbiotic relationship between different strains of bacteria, where applicable.
  • The contribution of starter cultures to the body and texture of the final product.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The types of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing are classified according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Classification includes:
  • Strain composition (single or multiple) of the starter culture.
  • Genes and species of the micro-organisms present in the starter culture (specific for each fermented dairy product).
  • Growth requirements (optimum temperature, optimum pH and required growth medium).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The growth phases of starter culture bacteria are described according to standard microbiological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Lag phase.
  • Logarithmic phase.
  • Stationary phase.
  • Dying-off phase.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The requirements for a starter culture are identified according to standard dairy principles and within the specific context of the learner's work environment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The identification refers to:
  • Good starter activity.
  • Absence of starter contamination.
  • Required contribution of the starter to the desired characteristics of the final product.
  • Required growth temperature.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Bacteriophages are defined according to standard microbiological and dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • Significance of bacteriophages during the manufacturing of fermented dairy products.
  • Effects of bacteriophage contamination on final product quality.
  • Methods of preventing bacteriophage contamination.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Factors that influence the activity of starter cultures are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The specific starter culture applied in the learner's work environment is identified according to standard operating procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of coagulation during fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Coagulation is defined and its purpose during manufacturing of fermented dairy products is described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented product is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • The changes in the structure of the protein complex.
  • The importance of the starter culture.
  • The importance of available calcium.
  • The action of rennet on the protein complex, where applicable.
  • The difference between sweet and acid coagulation.
  • The importance of pH.
  • The importance of heat treatment, where applicable.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Five factors that influence the coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Five milk composition factors that influence coagulation are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Fermentation in dairy products is defined according to standard dairy principles and within the specific context of the learner's work environment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • Relationship between fermentation and coagulation.
  • Substrate and product of fermentation.
  • Micro-organisms present in the starter culture and responsible for fermentation.
  • Effect of fermentation of the pH and flavour of the final product.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The nutritional and health value of fermented or coagulated dairy products is identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the methods of coagulation for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Methods of coagulation are identified and described according to standard dairy principles. One example of each is also given. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Method of milk coagulation include:
  • Coagulation by means of starter cultures only (acid coagulation).
  • Coagulation by means of starter cultures in combination with enzymes (sweet coagulation).
  • Coagulation by means of the addition of acid in combination with heat treatment, where applicable.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The types of enzymes used for coagulation are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Types of enzymes include:
  • Animal rennet.
  • Microbial rennet.
  • Pepsin rennet.
  • Vegetable rennet.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The requirements for enzymes are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The requirements include:
  • PH.
  • Temperature.
  • Enzyme concentration.
  • Absence of enzyme inhibitors.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Factors that inactivate enzymes are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The types of acids used for coagulation are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The relevant raw materials for the specific fermented dairy product are identified and the function of each is explained according to standard dairy and quality principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The requirements of the specific raw materials are identified and reasons for the requirements are explained according to standard dairy and quality principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The factors that influence the efficiency of mixing are identified and its importance is explained according to standard dairy and quality principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include:
  • Correct quantities of raw materials.
  • Specific sequence during mixing.
  • Correct mixing rate.
  • Importance of temperature during mixing.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The production plan is obtained and interpreted according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Personal preparation is done according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Preparations include:
  • Hygiene practices.
  • Wearing of protective clothing and safety gear.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The equipment and work area are prepared according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Raw materials are obtained and checked according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Mixing of raw materials is carried out according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The mixture is prepared according to standard operating procedures and conforms to site-specifications after preparation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The equipment is started up according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Problems during preparation are solved within scope of work. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The milk or mixture is coagulated according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Equipment is handled according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Parameters are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The values for the parameters of coagulation are identified and the reasons for the specific parameters are explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters include:
  • Incubation period.
  • Incubation temperature.
  • Inoculum size.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Samples are taken and are sent for analysis according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Results of sample analysis are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the product's conformance to site specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The coagulated milk or mixture conforms to site-specifications and product requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Sub-standard product is handled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Where the equipment is operated simultaneously with other manufacturing actions or processes, it is synchronised according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    Problems are solved within scope of work. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Perform end of coagulation procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A changeover is performed according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    First line maintenance is performed according to standard operating procedures and within scope of work. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    First line maintenance includes:
  • Cleaning and sanitising of equipment and work area.
  • Inspection of equipment.
  • All other maintenance functions as required within the learner's scope of work.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Records are kept according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The equipment is shut down (where applicable) according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The coagulated milk or mixture is ready for further processing (where applicable) according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Further processing is performed according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Further processing entails:
  • For unflavoured yoghurt, buttermilk, maas and sour cream: Stirring and cooling. An explanation is also given for the importance of stirring and cooling.
  • For flavoured yoghurt: Stirring, flavouring and cooling. An explanation is also given for the importance of stirring and cooling.
  • For flavoured fruit yoghurt: Stirring, flavouring, addition of fruit base and cooling. An explanation is also given for the importance of stirring and cooling.
  • For all types of cheese: Release for further processing of coagulum into cheese curd.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor or moderator respectively with the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA), or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal (provider-based) and external (ETQA-based) moderation of assessment, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment against this unit standard should encompass achievement of competencies described in the individual unit standard and may encompass achievement of integrated competencies with other unit standard(s).
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Solving problems within scope of work.

    Evident in specific outcomes 4 and 5:
  • Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture.
  • Coagulate milk or a diary mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Preparing for coagulation of milk or the mixture.

    Evident in specific outcome 4:
  • Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Making sure that the coagulated milk or mixture meets site-specifications and product requirements.

    Evident in specific outcomes 4 and 5:
  • Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture.
  • Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Keeping records.

    Evident in specific outcome 6:
  • Perform end of coagulation procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of starter cultures for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of coagulation during fermented dairy product manufacturing.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of the methods of coagulation for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
    4. Prepare for coagulation of milk or a dairy mixture.
    5. Coagulate milk or a dairy mixture for fermented dairy product manufacturing.
    6. Perform end of coagulation procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces the following unit standards:
  • 9172, ''Coagulate a dairy mixture for the manufacturing of a fermented dairy product'', level 4, 5 credits.
  • 9171, ''Coagulate milk for cheese manufacturing'', level 4, 5 credits.
  • 9178, ''Manufacture yogurt and another fermented dairy product'', level 4, 15 credits.

    Supplementary Information:
  • Legal requirements:

    Where applicable, the following acts, current and future regulations and amendments should be considered:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972.
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977.
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993.
  • Other industry specific Acts.

    Where applicable, the following International and National Standards should be considered:
  • SANS 1049 - Food Hygiene Management.
  • SANS 10330 - Requirements for a HACCP system.
  • ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for organisations throughout the food chain.
  • ISO 9001 - Quality Management System - Requirements.
  • Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology: Clarification/ explanation/ definition:
  • Standard operating procedures: Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal safety and food safety practices and procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50306   Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2018-07-26  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FMCG Training Solutions CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.