SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION: 

Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
63129  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care 
ORIGINATOR
General SGB 09 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
The individual Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary for each Learning Programme recorded against this qualification is shown in the table at the end of this report.  HEQSF - Higher Education Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National First Degree(Min 480)  Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services  Preventive Health 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  480  Level 7  NQF Level 08  Regular-ELOAC 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Reregistered  SAQA 091/21  2021-07-01  2023-06-30 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification does not replace any other qualification and is not replaced by any other qualification. 

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

The purpose of this qualification is to develop a learner competent in the knowledge; attitude, insight and skills required for the emergency medical care and rescue professions.

The qualifying learner will be able to competently apply an integration of theoretical principles, proven techniques, practical experience, clinical procedures and appropriate skills in order to:
  • Provide independent, specialized emergency medical care and rescue services to all sectors of the community.
  • Apply management, education and research skills during independent practice and function in a supervisory, clinical governance and/or quality assurance capacity within emergency services and healthcare environments.
  • Become a reflective practitioner and life long learner within emergency medical care and rescue profession.

    Successful completion of this qualification will entitle the learner to register with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) as an Independent Emergency Care Practitioner.

    Scope of practice of Emergency Care Practitioners:

    The exit level outcomes, range statements and assessment criteria must be interpreted and applied within the context of the scope of practice of Emergency Care Practitioners as defined by the Health Professions Council of South Africa.

    Rationale:

    This qualification is designed to produce professionals who are independent clinical practitioners and rescue specialists within the emergency medical care and rescue environments. The qualification will develop cognitive, technological and scientific enquiry capability and promote the research, innovation and management skills necessary for management and development of the emergency medical and rescue professions. Graduates will practice primarily; within South Africa in rural and urban contexts that range from sophisticated emergency medical care facilities to remote primary health care settings. This qualification also aims to promote an understanding of the multi-disciplinary approach to effective, efficient patient care. In addition, this qualification aims to produce a professional practitioner that will take cognizance of South African history and will be able to adapt to the unique circumstances of a changing South Africa with emphasis on equity in health care, social upliftment and reduction of burden of disease.

    The qualification is also designed to enable learners to pursue further personal, managerial, education, training and professional development; and to promote life-long learning. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    This qualification is based on specific knowledge within the health sciences field. Knowledge of communication, information technology and sciences at NQF Level 4 is also assumed.

    Recognition of Prior Learning:

    This qualification may be achieved in part through RPL in accordance with the policies and procedures of the educational service provider and on presenting the relevant evidence that meets the outcomes of the qualification.

    Access to the Qualification:

    Learners accessing this qualification will be expected to have a grade 12 or a recognised equivalent qualification at NQF Level 4, or in accordance with the selection policy of the National Department of Education and the respective educational provider. In addition, learners will have passed Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy and Physical Sciences or Life Sciences at NQF Level 4. 

    RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
    Learners are to achieve all the credits for both the fundamental and core components of the qualification. There are no electives in this qualification. The qualification is competency based. Notional hours will include both theoretical and clinical competencies as required by the Professional Board for Emergency Care Practitioners. 

    EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Demonstrate effective communication and apply the principles of medical ethics, professional behaviour and the legal framework to the context within which emergency care practitioners operate while maintaining personal health, wellness and safety (20 credits).

    2. Practice, supervise and facilitate the provision of emergency medical care to all sectors of the community utilising specialised strategies and technologies (200 credits).

    3. Perform medical rescue in a wide range of rescue contexts (120 credits).

    4. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of human and basic sciences underpinning emergency medical care (100 credits).

    5. Provide in-service education and training in emergency medical care and rescue (8 credits).

    6. Demonstrate an understanding of the management, structure and function of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems in South Africa and provide operational and clinical supervision within an emergency medical and rescue service (12 credits).

    7. Develop research skills and conduct research in emergency medical care and rescue (20 credits).

    Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:
  • Identify and solve problems using critical and creative thinking in relation to the assessment and treatment of patients.
  • Working effectively with others as a member of the team, group, organisation and community within the context of providing emergency care and supporting other services.
  • Organize and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively in the preparation for emergency care as well as during the provision of emergency care.
  • Collect, analyze, organize and critically evaluate information for the assessment and treatment of patients.
  • Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and or written presentation, particularly through reports and the handover of patients to other services.
  • Demonstrate cultural and aesthetic sensitivity in dealing with patients, colleagues and communities.
  • Demonstrate effective use of science and technology, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that the problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Demonstrate the need for continuous professional development and life-long learning. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 1:
  • Communication with patients, colleagues and other service providers is effective, clear, direct, and accurate, with appropriate use of modality including electronic media. Terminology is consistent with profession usage.
  • Interactions promote human dignity and are undertaken with due sensitivity to ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious and gender diversity.
  • Ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy and justice, truth telling, promise keeping and confidentiality are correctly applied in all contexts.
  • All clinical interactions and related practices are in line with the provisions and rules of the codes of ethics of the HPCSA and professional associations.
  • Accurate and comprehensive explanations are provided of the legal framework within which an emergency service provider and/or practitioner operates.
  • The importance of mental health and wellness on the part of the emergency care provider is comprehensively discussed, highlighting their role and importance, with particular reference to the impact on job effectiveness.
  • Suitable methods for achieving and maintaining operational fitness are identified, demonstrated and described in terms of lifestyle, diet and exercise techniques, highlighting the impact on self and job effectiveness.
  • Methods for maintaining personal safety are identified, demonstrated and applied through appropriate risk assessment, scene assessment, decision making and option taking.
  • Safe and effective use of emergency service vehicles and emergency response driving is described and/or demonstrated.
  • Operational routines are correctly conducted within an EMS environment.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 2:
  • Potential hazards within the emergency service environment are correctly identified in terms of their origins, impact and means of management or mitigation. Scene and incident management is carried out in line with best practice and established procedures.
  • Emergency medical care equipment is accurately described in terms of function, storage, maintenance and use.
  • Infection control is discussed and implemented in line with established procedures.
  • Medical and/or trauma related disorders are accurately diagnosed based on an applied understanding of the underlying patho-physiology.
  • Logical, sound clinical decision- making is demonstrated. Clinical decisions are based on, informed by and validated through comprehensive history taking and appropriate clinical assessment.
  • Patients are correctly managed within the scope of practice of an Emergency Care Practitioner and with due consideration for evidence informed practice.
  • Clinical and intensive care procedures and practices are correctly applied, described, discussed and/or demonstrated in circumstances requiring specialised transportation.
  • Integrated patient care and clinical skills/procedures are correctly demonstrated.
  • The principles of primary health care, disease prevention, health promotion and counselling are described and demonstrated.
  • HIV and AIDS awareness is promoted in self and among others.
  • Patient hand over is carried out in line with local protocols and procedures.
  • Medical records are constructed which provide sufficient accurate details of patient information and treatment.
  • Self critique, realistic, accurate and fair reflection of own clinical competence and practice is demonstrated.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 3:
  • Safety principles are correctly considered and applied throughout the rescue operation.
  • Hazards within the rescue environment are accurately evaluated in terms of their sources, impact and means for mitigation considered and applied.
  • Incident management is carried out in line with established procedures.
  • Appropriate level of physical fitness is acquired, maintained and demonstrated.
  • Use of rescue equipment is correctly demonstrated and comprehensively described in terms of function, specifications, storage and maintenance.
  • Theoretical concepts and strategies underpinning the management strategies of specific rescue incidents are correctly identified, explained and/or applied.
  • Rescue skills, procedure and techniques are safely and effectively demonstrated.
  • Rescue incidents and or scenarios are correctly managed with regard to incident analysis, planning, preparation and execution.
  • Teamwork, incident command and leadership skills are correctly demonstrated.

    Range:
  • Fire, Search and Rescue.
  • High Angle and Rope Rescue.
  • Vehicle Extrication.
  • Industrial and agricultural rescue.
  • Wilderness Search and Rescue.
  • Aviation Rescue.
  • Aquatic Rescue (Swift Water Rescue, Surface Rescue and Small Boat Handling).
  • Confined Space Rescue.
  • Trench Rescue.
  • Structural Collapse Rescue.
  • Hazardous Materials Rescue.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 4:
  • The composition, general form, spatial orientation and position of structures within the regions of the human body are acutely described and integrated within a clinical context.
  • The physiological functioning of the human body is correctly explained and integrated into patient care.
  • Key principles of chemistry are correctly explained and applied to emergency medical care and rescue contexts.
  • Key principles of physics are correctly explained and applied to emergency medical care and rescue contexts.
  • Key principles of microbiology are described and applied to emergency medical care contexts in general, with particular reference to communicable diseases and infection control.
  • The pathogenesis of disease and injury is accurately and comprehensively described in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the applicable body systems.
  • Problem-based scenarios are correctly interpreted based on integration of anatomy, physiology and pathology.
  • Principles of pharmacology are correctly explained and applied to the emergency medical care context.
  • Drugs used within the scope of practice of the Emergency Care Practitioner are accurately and comprehensively described in terms of class, schedule, trade name, and generic name, mechanism of action, indications, contra-indications, precautions, side effects, packaging, dosage and administration and route of administration.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 5:
  • National policies as applicable to education and training are correctly identified and explained.
  • Theories of teaching and learning are correctly explained and applied.
  • Key issues of teaching and learning in education and training are correctly identified and analyzed (RPL, Access etc).
  • Quality assurance of teaching and learning are properly discussed.
  • Educational needs are correctly identified and described.
  • Learning programmes are developed in accordance with the needs of the target group.
  • Learning resources are properly identified, located and developed.
  • Suitable teaching methods and activities are designed which support the learning program and meets the needs of the target group.
  • A learning event is professionally facilitated.
  • Appropriate assessment criteria are developed to assess the learning outcome/s.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 6:
  • EMRS is accurately described in terms of structure, role and function, both public and private, within the South African context.
  • Correct explanations are provided of the interdependence and interrelationships occurring between EMRS and other Allied Emergency and Health Care structures.
  • The role of the health care team is correctly explained in terms of key responsibilities of each role and the relationships between each role.
  • National legislation as applicable to emergency care and rescue services are correctly identified and explained.
  • Multi-disciplinary approaches to emergency care and rescue scenarios are correctly explained and/or demonstrated.
  • Professional communication between and co-operation with patients and stakeholders are correctly explained and/or demonstrated.
  • Operational needs are correctly analysed and evaluated.
  • Factors influencing policy and operation of the emergency care and/or rescue services are correctly explained.
  • Problem areas are correctly identified and addressed using problem solving and decision making techniques.
  • Principles of budgeting are correctly explained and/or demonstrated.
  • Applicable labour legislation and labour practice is correctly explained.
  • Principles of human resource management are correctly explained.
  • Principles of system design for equipment maintenance, stock control and fleet management is correctly explained and demonstrated.
  • Key performance indicators for effective and efficient service delivery are correctly identified and discussed.
  • Principles of disaster management are correctly explained and demonstrated.

    Assessment Criteria for Exit-Level Outcome 7:
  • Research needs within the field of emergency care are correctly identified and articulated.
  • Quantitative and qualitative research methods are appropriately investigated and discussed as possible solutions to research needs.
  • Statistical methods are correctly discussed and compared.
  • Research publications are critically evaluated according to set criteria.
  • A professional research proposal is developed, motivated and presented within the field of emergency care.
  • Principles of research ethics are correctly discussed and applied.
  • Data is correctly collected using appropriate methods.
  • Data is correctly analysed, interpreted and evaluated using appropriate statistical tools where applicable.
  • Research findings are prepared and presented according to set criteria and formatting requirements.
  • A research report is produced in accordance with accepted research guidelines.

    Integrated Assessment:

    Integrated assessment strategies across related modules and critical cross-field outcomes are applied. Integrated assessment takes the form of an appropriate variety of assessment methods, for example: written and oral examinations, problem solving assignments, projects presentations, case studies, portfolios, log books, clinical reports and objectively structured clinical examination, reflective practice journals and simulated medical and rescue scenarios.

    Formative Assessment:

    Learning and assessment are integrated. The scheme of work includes tests and assignments, practical work and competency evaluation of practical skills. The process is continuous and focuses on smaller sections of the work in limited number of outcomes.

    Summative Assessment:

    Summative assessments evaluate the learners' abilities to manage and integrate a larger body of knowledge and to achieve the stated outcomes. The summative assessment also focuses on the learners' ability to integrate knowledge and skills in the particular area of specialisation. Summative assessments include theory and practical assessments. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    Comparison with US qualifications:

    This qualification was compared against the United States qualifications for an EMT-Paramedic which are established by United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    The USA has been a world leader in establishing EMT standards since The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) assumed responsibility for the development of training courses that are responsive to the standards established by the Highway Safety Act of 1966 (amended). These training courses are designed to provide national guidelines for training. NHTSA`s intention is that they be of the highest quality and be maintained in a current and up-to-date status from the point of view of both technical content and instructional strategy. The EMT-Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum represents the highest level of education in EMS pre-hospital training.

    The US EMT-Paramedic certificate course typically is a 1000 - 1200 hour course. Students follow the one-year paramedic program, which consists of classroom instruction, clinical, field, and skills training. Successful completion of the program prepares students to take the National Registry EMT-P certification examination.

    Several vocational, technical, and Junior colleges offer a 2 year Associate's of Applied Science Degree, Emergency Management Services (AAS, EMS) requiring approximately 70-75 semester hours of study. These programs prepare students for certification as a paramedic and further provide them with the background to manage and supervise emergency medical first responder units in support of fire departments, ambulance companies and other first responder agencies. In addition to

    EMT courses students also take courses such as:
  • English Composition.
  • Modern College Mathematics or Introduction to College Algebra & Trigonometry.
  • Principles of Ethics.
  • On Being a Supervisor.
  • Anatomy & Physiology for Paramedics.
  • Computing Concepts & Applications.
  • Introduction to Human Communication.
  • Managing the Emergency Medical Service Paramedic.
  • Fire Education and Public Relations.

    A limited number of colleges offer a 4 year Bachelor of Science in Emergency Medical Services (BSEMS). The bachelor's degree requires 128 semester hours of course work consisting of liberal arts core courses as well as 51 hours of paramedic course work. Students going for the BSEMS will focus on concentration areas such as Emergency Medical Services Administration, Emergency Medical Services education, or Upper level EMS Clinical Courses during their third and fourth year of school. Many students in the clinical concentration use these classes as pre-med classes.

    The South African Professional Degree in Emergency Medical Care is very similar to a 4 year program in the USA. Educational institutions offering an EMT-P bachelors degree in the USA must adhere to the United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration standards and objectives. The assessment criteria for the different Exit Level Outcomes are very similar to the objectives stated in the USA`s National Curriculum for EMT-P programs.

    The United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that a paramedic programme should consist of four components of instruction: didactic instruction, skills laboratory, clinical education, and field internship. The first three typically occur concurrently, and the field internship serves as a verification that the student is serving as a competent, entry level practitioner. The South African qualification has the same components as the USA`s National Curriculum for EMT-P programmes as follows:

    Preparatory:
  • EMS Systems/The Roles and Responsibilities of the Paramedic.
  • The Well-Being of the Paramedic.
  • Illness and Injury Prevention.
  • Medical/Legal Issues.
  • Ethics.
  • General Principles of Pathophysiologies.
  • Pharmacology.
  • Venous Access and Medication Administration.
  • Therapeutic Communications.
  • Life Span Development.

    Airway management and ventilation medical:
  • Pulmonary, Cardiology.
  • Neurology, Endocrinology.
  • Allergies and Anaphylaxis.
  • Gastroenterology, Renal/Urology.
  • Toxicology, Haematology.
  • Environmental Conditions.
  • Infectious and Communicable Diseases.
  • Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders.
  • Gynaecology, Obstetrics.

    Patient assessment:
  • History Taking.
  • Techniques of Physical Examination.
  • Patient Assessment.
  • Clinical Decision Making.
  • Communications and Documentation.

    Trauma:
  • Trauma Systems/Mechanism of Injury.
  • Haemorrhage and Shock, Burns.
  • Soft Tissue Trauma.
  • Head and Facial Trauma, Spinal Trauma.
  • Thoracic Trauma, Abdominal Trauma.
  • Musculoskeletal Trauma.

    Special considerations:
  • Neonatology, Paediatrics.
  • Geriatrics.
  • Abuse and Assault.
  • Patients with Special Challenges.
  • Acute Interventions for the Chronic Care Patient.
  • Assessment based management.

    Operations:
  • Ambulance Operations.
  • Medical Incident Command.
  • Rescue Awareness and Operations.
  • Hazardous Materials Incidents.
  • Crime Scene Awareness.

    Clinical/field requirements:

    Objectives for the USA`s National Curriculum: EMT-P programmes are available.

    Emergency Care education and training in a country similar in socio-economy to SA:

    Senegal has no on-going EMT-P training programme remotely close to the South African qualification. Medical training for ambulance personnel is similar to EMT-B standards but there are no national standards for training throughout the country. Individuals in communities away from the major cities such as Dakar receive very little training.

    The United Arab Emirates has a limited number of medics trained to EMT-P standards but this training was received primarily outside the country. Different governmental agencies contract with companies from different countries such as the USA, Germany, Canada, UK, Australia, and Saudi Arabia to come in to conduct training. Each contractor brings in standards from his country. There are no national level standards for paramedic training in the country. Additionally, there are no standards for maintaining medical competency or lifetime development.

    Emergency Medical Services in the United Kingdom has taken a decision to stop short course training and are currently developing similar higher education qualifications for pre-hospital practitioners. This decision was taken after reviewing the South African higher education model.

    Conclusion:

    The Professional Degree compares favourably with world's best practice as represented by the United States qualifications, while leading the way on the African continent for establishing standards for the equivalent of a emergency medical care practitioner. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This programme serves to provide candidates with the foundational knowledge, cognitive and conceptual tools and practical techniques in ancillary health services and acts as a springboard from which learners may progress to NQF Level 9 qualifications.

    Horizontal articulation is limited to science-related credits in common with other health-related fields. 

    MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Providers offering learning towards this qualification must be accredited by the appropriate ETQA, the HEQC in conjunction with the HPCSA. In particular, accreditation is dependent on providers demonstrating that their curriculum and learning programme/s meet the requirements specified by the Health Professions Council of South Africa.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the appropriate ETQA according to moderation principles and procedures. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
  • Assessors must be registered in terms of the requirements of SAQA and the appropriate ETQA.
  • Assessors and moderators must be used in a manner that fits into the quality management system of the provider and in accordance with the institutional tuition and assessment policies. This must also apply to the appointment of outside persons. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this qualification was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    NOTES 
    The above submission does not refer to a new qualification but constitutes a revision of the existing B Tech Emergency Medical Care qualification, which is already registered with SAQA and has been offered by the Universities for some time now. The modifications and changes to the qualification structure and exit level outcomes remain valid are therefore largely the same. Care has been taken to ensure that the naming and terminology used to define and refer to the revised qualification are aligned to the newly promulgated HEQF. 

    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
     
    LP ID Learning Programme Title Originator Pre-2009
    NQF Level
    NQF Level Min Credits Learning Prog End Date Quality
    Assurance
    Functionary
    NQF Sub-Framework
    63092  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  Central University of Technology, Free State  Level 7  NQF Level 08  480  2018-12-31  CHE  HEQSF 
    63090  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  Level 7  NQF Level 08  480     CHE  HEQSF 
    63089  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  University of Johannesburg  Level 7  Level N/A: Pre-2009 was L7  480  2018-12-31  CHE  HEQSF 
    63091  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Cape Peninsula University of Technology  Level 7  NQF Level 08  480     CHE  HEQSF 
    81846  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  Not Applicable  NQF Level 08  520     CHE  HEQSF 
    91791  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Nelson Mandela University  Not Applicable  NQF Level 08  492     CHE  HEQSF 
    88920  Bachelor of Health Science: Emergency Medical Care  University of Johannesburg  Not Applicable  NQF Level 08  492     CHE  HEQSF 
    83366  Bachelor of Health Sciences in Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  Not Applicable  NQF Level 08  520     CHE  HEQSF 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THESE LEARNING PROGRAMMES: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    LP ID Learning Programme Title Accredited Provider
    63092  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  Central University of Technology, Free State  
    63090  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  
    63089  Bachelor Degree: Emergency Medical Care  University of Johannesburg  
    63091  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Cape Peninsula University of Technology  
    81846  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  
    91791  Bachelor of Emergency Medical Care  Nelson Mandela University  
    88920  Bachelor of Health Science: Emergency Medical Care  University of Johannesburg  
    83366  Bachelor of Health Sciences in Emergency Medical Care  Durban University of Technology  



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.