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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Describe drying defects occurring in wood, and methods to use in minimizing them 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
263674  Describe drying defects occurring in wood, and methods to use in minimizing them 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Forestry 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 01 - Agriculture and Nature Conservation Forestry and Wood Technology 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard reflects the skills, values and knowledge required by people in the sub-field of Forestry and/or wood technology who must be able to describe drying defects occurring in wood, and methods to use in minimizing them.

People credited with this Unit Standard are able to:
  • Describe the properties of wood that can cause drying defects.
  • Describe the lumber drying factors that can cause drying defects.
  • Describe methods and techniques required to minimize lumber kiln drying defects.

    Describe the drying defects that can occur in dried lumber. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners have competency in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 1 or equivalent. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe the properties of wood that can cause drying defects. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Different planes in wood, i.e. radial, tangential and longitudinal, juvenile wood, abnormal/reaction wood, spiral grain. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The properties of wood are described according to physical make-up, diameter and relatedness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The drying processes that a wood undergoes are explained according to set quality standards. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The drying processes that a wood undergoes are explained according to set quality standards. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe the lumber drying factors that can cause drying defects. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Temperature, airflow, humidity, stacking, base support to stack, moisture content of green lumber. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Factors that cause drying defects in the Dry Lumber are listed and discussed according to wood appearance. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The impact of each factor is discussed with specific reference to Drying Lumber and quality requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The method to be used in minimising the drying defects are formulated as per cause factor. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe methods and techniques required to minimize lumber kiln drying defects. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Selection of material to be dried, green moisture content, stack base support, stacking, kiln conditions and controls, load restraining devices, kiln lumber drying schedules. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The rationale for selecting the quality of timber is explained according to quality requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Techniques applied for drying lumber is predicted against the logical steps followed according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Moisture content required for the production of a defect free dried timber is analyzed according to quality specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The appropriate procedure required for stacking timber onto kilns is explained in line with its preventative defects control. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Procedure to be observed when using kilns is explained with special focus to the set Health and Safety standards. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The correct kiln drying schedule is formulated according to set quality standards. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Describe the drying defects that can occur in dried lumber. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Distortion, drying stresses, moisture content variation, under drying and over drying. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The defects of dried lumber are explained according to quality requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of these defects on the quality of the final product is explained according to quality requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 4 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency. Only an Assessor with suitable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected in the Assessment Criteria for each Specific Outcome and must be assessed in its own right, through oral and written evidence. Observation can not be the only evidence. However the following can be intergrated in the assessment:
  • Workplace procedures, safety and health measures and environmental management principles relevant to NQF Level 2 activities in lumber drying, and basic knowledge of the drying defects that can occur in lumber, and how to minimize them. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses show that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking has been applied when they identify and describe dried wood defects. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    This will be demonstrated when a learner works effectively with others as a member of the team when receiving and giving instructions from peers whilst loading kilns. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    This will be displayed when the learner applies the principles of Health and Safety to ensure that harm to both other workers and the environment is avoided. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    The learner is able to collect, organize and critically evaluate information by selecting the appropriate kiln schedule against the quality of timber for drying purpose. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    The learner is able to use science and technology effectively by identifying causes and nature of defects on wood and seek preventative measures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  66269   General Education and Training Certificate: Lumber Milling  Level 1  NQF Level 01  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 
    Elective  66312   National Certificate: Lumber Milling  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. ENB Training Service(PTY)Ltd 
    2. Lomkhethi Trading Enterprise 
    3. MINERAL MINING TRAINING INSTITUTE (PTY) LTD 
    4. Umbuso Training Services 
    5. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 
    6. York Timbers Pty Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.