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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of the scientific principles applicable to glass melting 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
258075  Demonstrate understanding of the scientific principles applicable to glass melting 
ORIGINATOR
Chemical Industries SGB 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Engineering and Related Design 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners who demonstrate competence as described in the outcomes of this unit standard will be able to apply elementary glass chemistry in a glass melting setting.

The qualifying learner is able to:
  • Explain the properties of the raw material used in the glass production process.
  • Describe heat and its application in glass melting.
  • Describe glass furnace heat transfer principles.
  • Demonstrate understanding of molten glass properties. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Learners accessing this unit standard will have demonstrated competence against numeracy and literacy at NQF Level 2 or equivalent. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical context of this unit standard includes any glass manufacturing environment.

    Range statements, which are applicable to the unit standard titles, specific outcomes and assessment criteria are found beneath the applicable assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the properties of the raw material used in the glass production process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Raw materials used in glass manufacturing are described with reference to their chemical compositions and approximate concentration in a glass batch. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Raw materials should include but is not limited to silica, limestone, sodium carbonate, feldspar, sodium sulphate, oxides, iron chromite, iron sulphide, cobalt sulphate, cullet and cord.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Oxides used in glass manufacturing are described with reference to their impact on the final product and the manufacturing process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Oxides should include but is not limited to the oxides from silica, sodium, calcium, aluminium, potassium, cobalt, selenium, iron, sulphur and chromium.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The functions different constituents fulfil in the production process and the final glass product. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Functions fulfilled by the different types of raw materiala are formers, modifiers and intermediates.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Raw materials are described in terms of key properties and characteristics. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Raw material properties may include but are not limited to consistency, contaminants, oxide constituents, moisture levels.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Basic batch calculations are performed with the view of fulfilling given final product composition and requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Impact of raw material deviations are identified and described in terms of the expected impact on the overall process and final product. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe heat and its application in glass melting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Combustion concepts are described based on simple chemical reactions and exothermic reaction principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Common glass furnace fuels and combustion products are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Fuels should include but is not limited to oil and gas.
  • Combustion products include carbon dioxide, water vapour, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The environmental impact of exhaust gases are discussed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Exhaust gases should include carbon dioxide, SOx, NOx, sodium sulphate and steam.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Fuel system layout and components are described in view of scientific combustion principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe glass furnace heat transfer principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Heat transfer principles are discussed using scientific principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Heat transfer principles should include conduction, convection and radiation.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Glass furnace layout and components are described using industry or own workplace examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Glass furnace heat transfer concepts are discussed in view of known glass furnace designs. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Exhaust system layout and components are described in view of scientific principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate understanding of molten glass properties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Raw melting points of glass constituents are listed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Glass melting reactions are described with reference to relevant glass constituents and their melting temperatures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Viscosity and its relevance to molten glass are discussed using scientific principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Molten glass flow patterns in a furnace are described in view of heat transfer, viscosity and furnace design principles. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 3 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency.
  • Only an assessor with considerable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions is required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Qualifying learners understand and can:
  • Perform elementary chemical calculations.
  • Balance elementary chemical reactions.
  • Identify the elementary structure and components of the periodic table.

    Qualifying learners understand and can explain:
  • Chemical reactions.
  • Acids and bases.
  • The three phases of matter and the properties and process applications of selected substances in each of the phases. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in the following areas, which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made:
  • Balancing basic chemical reactions.
  • Identifying process applications associated with chemical principles.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain the properties of the raw material used in the glass production process.
  • Describe heat and its application in glass melting.
  • Demonstrate understanding of molten glass properties. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    The learner is able to organise and manage himself and his activities responsibly and effectively.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Logically categorising the disciplines within chemistry.
  • Logically categorising the processing industry.
  • Displaying a logical framework of chemical models and principles.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain the properties of the raw material used in the glass production process.
  • Describe heat and its application in glass melting.
  • Describe glass furnace heat transfer principles. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations during:
  • Use of chemical symbols, formula and terminology.
  • Explanation of chemical principles and models.
  • Interpreting the periodic table of elements.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes . 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems. This is evident in:
  • Interpreting fundamental chemical principles in terms of the process industry applications and everyday products.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
  • Understanding the role of chemical reactions in a processing environment and the effect it has on the growth and development of the organisation, its customers and employees.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  63349   National Certificate: Molten Glass Production  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  CHIETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.