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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of seismology principles 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256896  Demonstrate an understanding of seismology principles 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in rock engineering, or have a need to understand basic mine seismology.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of basic principles in seismology in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the objectives of seismic monitoring.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of basic terminology.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of seismic source.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of seismic hazard. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the objectives of seismic monitoring. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Explanation of the different objectives of seismic monitoring is provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Location of potential rockbursts.
  • Prevention of further seismic activity.
  • Control of present seismic activity.
  • Warnings of possible changes in level of seismic activity.
  • Back-analysis of seismic activity to improve designs and future monitoring.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of basic terminology. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Explanation of the terms 'seismic event', 'rockburst' and 'shake-down' is provided and the differences highlighted in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The concept of event magnitude is explained and the different magnitude measurement systems are listed in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Richter Magnitude.
  • Energy Magnitude.
  • Moment Magnitude.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A description of seismic wave types emitted during the occurrence of a seismic event is provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Primary or P-waves.
  • Secondary or S-waves.
  • Surface waves (Rayleigh, Love).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A description and explanation of a seismogram is provided in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The conceptual systems, methods and theories used to locate seismic events are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Seismic networks (transducers, cable, seismometers).
  • Wave theory (attenuation, reflection, refraction, interference).
  • Different location methods (arrival time differences, back azimuth calculations).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The procedure whereby events are located using seismograms from various transducers in a seismic network, is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Near-field and far-field events are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the seismic source. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The term 'seismic source' is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The parameters used to quantify a seismic source from a waveform are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Time of event.
  • Location.
  • Seismic moment.
  • Radiated seismic energy or stress drop.
  • Characteristic size of event.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Examples of different seismic sources are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Face bursting.
  • Pillars crushing.
  • Pillar foundations failing.
  • Slip along geological discontinuities.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of seismic hazard. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The indication of seismic hazard, using seismological parameters, is explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Gutenberg-Richter relationship (b-value).
  • Energy index and apparent volume trends.
  • Activity rate.
  • Clustering.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The consequences of not determining the seismic hazard of an area are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The consequences of not monitoring seismic activity are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Knowledge and understanding of the objectives of seismic monitoring.
  • Knowledge and understanding of basic terminology.
  • Knowledge and understanding of the seismic source.
  • Knowledge and understanding of seismic hazard.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational Health, Safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: The ability of the learner to relate incorrect seismic event locations to incorrect seismic hazards. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The ability of the learner to understand that the detailed analysis of seismograms determine the appropriateness of the magnitude and source parameters. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the learner to critically evaluate the information derived from seismic monitoring. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The ability of the learner to communicate seismological information to the appropriate personnel. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The application of physics in wave propagation and source models as well as geometry in seismic event location and source models. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.