SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the various techniques available to assist in achieving high wall/slope stability 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256875  Demonstrate an understanding of the various techniques available to assist in achieving high wall/slope stability 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in rock engineering and responsible for ensuring slope stability in open pit mines.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of the various techniques to assist in achieving highwall/slope stability in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of reasons for highwall/slope instability.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of techniques to stabilise highwalls/slopes.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of reinforcement of highwalls/slopes as a stabilising technique. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of highwall/slope stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The issues that play a role in highwall/slope stability are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Geology.
  • Geotechnical environment (discontinuity spacing and orientation, rock strength).
  • Weathering.
  • Water.
  • Excavating technique.
  • Face orientation.
  • Slope angle.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The consequences of highwall/slope instability are explained in terms of impact on occupational health and safety and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of techniques to assist in achieving highwall/slope stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The need for stabilising techniques applied to be appropriate to that specific issue that drives instability is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different techniques commonly used to address potentially unstable highwall/slope angles are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Consequences must include:
  • Induce failure and clean up.
  • Reduce the slope angle.
  • Install reinforcement.
  • Water management.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conditions under which each of the different techniques should be employed in practice are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of not applying or incorrectly applying stabilising techniques to highwall/slope instability are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of reinforcement of highwalls/slopes as a stabilising technique. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Reinforcement methods on highwalls/slopes are listed and explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Bolting (with and without mesh).
  • Shotcrete.
  • Thin Skin liners.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The conditions under which the use of bolting will be considered are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Large blocks defined by geological weakness planes.
  • Identifiable area of failure.
  • Identifiable plane on which failure could occur.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The method to determine the bolting requirements is listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Identify the unstable area.
  • Identify weakness planes on which failure could occur.
  • Determine the effect of water pressure on the weakness planes.
  • Determine cohesion and friction on the weakness planes.
  • Determine the disturbing force dimensions (size and direction).
  • Determine the resisting force requirements to keep the area stable.
  • Determine bolt strength.
  • Determine the optimum angle of installation of bolting to achieve the resisting force.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The conditions under which the use of shotcrete or thin skin liners will be considered are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Geologically disturbed areas (significantly jointed).
  • Small rock block size.
  • Rock mass that chemically weathers when exposed to oxygen and water.
  • Sand consolidation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The factors to be considered when designing shotcrete or thin skin liner layers are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Area to be sprayed to ensure stability.
  • Thickness of layer required.
  • Application speed of system.
  • Curing time required to gain required strength.
  • Effect of the presence of water on material applied.
  • Strength of material used (tensile, flexural, shear).
  • Additives required (fibre, accelerators).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The application of the factor of safety concept in designing reinforcement strategies is explained in the context of mining operations. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Reasons for highwall/slope instability.
  • Techniques to stabilise highwalls/slopes.
  • Reinforcement of highwalls/slopes as a stabilising technique.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to identify and evaluate highwall/slope instability and the need for the application of techniques to stabilise the highwall/slope. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to explain the need for additional stabilising measures to workers in an attempt to improve hazard awareness. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to derive and choose the required parameters to allow the calculation of requirements to ensure stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to critically evaluate the optimum method to ensure highwall/slope stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to communicate the findings of the analysis to production and rock engineering personnel. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to apply physical and mathematical models to determine the requirements to ensure highwall/slope stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The understanding that identification and stabilisation of unstable highwalls/slopes have a significant effect on the stability of workings and safety of workers. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    Motivation in Respect of Number of Specific Outcomes:

    Even though there are less than four specific outcomes in this unit standard it represents a whole competency. It is NOT merely a description of tasks, jobs or procedures but it focuses on outcomes of activity. It also has a broad application across a range of contexts as stipulated in the unit standard.

    In addition this unit standard is considered as a milestone of learning in the sector. It is worth recognizing in its own right, as it is attributable to and achievable by an individual.

    This unit standard is fit-for-purpose for the sector and the specific outcomes jointly meet all the competence requirements of the title of the standard.

    In addition the unit standard has been integrated to avoid artificial distinctions between activities/processes. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.