SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Calculate the energy absorption and support resistance for a support system 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256872  Calculate the energy absorption and support resistance for a support system 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in rock engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of the application of support resistance and energy absorption calculations in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate understanding of the term support system.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of commonly used support systems.
  • Calculate the support resistance and energy absorption offered by a support system.
  • Apply the calculations to the mining environment.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the consequences of incorrectly calculated, inappropriate values or inappropriate application of support resistance and energy absorption. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of the term support system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The difference between support unit and support system is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The support groups that form part of a support system are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Mining operation (temporary, face area permanent, back area permanent, gully, pillars, tendons).
  • Development (temporary, primary, secondary and tertiary support).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of commonly used support systems. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Support systems used in development excavations are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Standard size excavations.
  • Large excavations.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Mine specific support systems used are listed and explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Support systems commonly used are listed and explained in the context of various mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Shallow mining environments.
  • Intermediate mining environments.
  • Deep mining environments.
  • Seismically active areas.
  • Surface operations.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate understanding of the method of calculation of the support resistance and energy absorption offered by a support system. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The method of analyzing a support system to calculate the support resistance offered by the system is explained in terms of specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Draw the support system in its cycle on installation.
  • Select a tributary area for the whole support system.
  • Collect load-deformation graphs for all support types in the support system.
  • Downgrade the load-deformation graph results for the underground loading rate when appropriate.
  • Calculate the total force generated by all support types in the selected tributary area for each cycle of support installation.
  • Divide the total force of all support types by the tributary area for each support cycle.
  • Express the support resistance offered by the system as the minimum value of all the cycles.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The method of analyzing a support system to calculate the energy absorption offered by the system is provided in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Draw the support system in its cycle on installation.
  • Select a tributary area for the whole support system.
  • Collect load-deformation graphs for all support types in the support system.
  • Downgrade the load-deformation graph results for the underground loading rate when appropriate.
  • Determine the force generated by each support unit in the selected tributary area for each cycle of support installation.
  • Determine the yield range available on each support unit in the selected tributary area for each cycle of support installation.
  • Calculate the energy absorption available on each support unit within the tributary area and for each cycle of support installation.
  • Add the total energy absorption capability of all support units in the tributary area for each support cycle.
  • Divide the total energy absorption capability of all support types by the tributary area for each support cycle.
  • Express the energy absorption offered by the system as a value per support installation cycle.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Apply the calculations to the mining environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The support resistance and energy absorption criteria are calculated based on mine-specific input parameters. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The need to compare the calculated support resistance and energy absorption to the mine specific criteria is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate understanding of the consequences of incorrectly calculated, inappropriate values or inappropriate application of support resistance and energy absorption. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The consequences of incorrect input parameters on working place stability are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The consequences of incorrect calculations on working place stability are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The consequences of inadequate support loads on working place stability are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of excessive support spacing on working place stability are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The consequences of inadequate support yield on working place stability are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The term support system.
  • Commonly used support systems.
  • Method of calculation of the support resistance and energy absorption offered by a support system.
  • Apply the calculations to the mining environment.
  • The consequences of incorrectly calculated, inappropriate values or inappropriate application of support resistance and energy absorption.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: The ability of the learner to determine the appropriate calculation method and input parameters. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: The ability of the learner to explain the installation of support to reach the required support resistance and energy absorption criteria to the team. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The ability of the learner to understand that the safety of other personnel is affected by the responsible and appropriate allocation of values to the calculations to establish criteria or evaluate support. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the learner to critically evaluate the input parameters to the calculations. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The ability of the learner to communicate the requirements to production or rock engineering personnel. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The use of mathematics and basic physics in the calculation of these values. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The understanding that calculation and application of these values affects the safety of workers. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site-specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.