SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of practical aspects relating to mass fill placement 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256869  Demonstrate an understanding of practical aspects relating to mass fill placement 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of mass fill placement on working place stability in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the types of mass fill and factors that influence the quality of mass fill.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the batching and transportation of mass fill.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the placement of mass fill.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the consequences of inadequate preparation, transportation and placement of fill. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the types of mass fill and factors that influence the quality of mass fill. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The types of mass fill typically used as support in the mining industry are described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Classified tailings backfill.
  • Cemented backfill.
  • Cycloned backfill.
  • Full plant tailings backfill.
  • Paste fill.
  • Communited waste.
  • Slurry.
  • Ash.
  • Unsorted waste.
  • Sand, mud, gravel and talus.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence that the variability of fill components has on the fill performance are described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Mineralogical composition.
  • Particle size distribution.
  • Porosity.
  • Compressibility.
  • Relative density.
  • Additives.
  • Permeability.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The factors that influence the performance of mass fill related to the batching and placement are provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Preparation.
  • Hydraulic placement.
  • Hydraulic transportation.
  • Monitoring systems.
  • Quality control.
  • Mechanical placement.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The factors that dictate the use of different types of mass fill are explained in accordance with the functions required of the fill. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the batching and transportation of mass fill. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The constituent components of the mass fill are listed in accordance with mine specific requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Type of sized aggregate(s).
  • Particle size distribution of aggregate(s).
  • Cement.
  • Plasticizers and superplasticizers.
  • Accelerators.
  • Retarders.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The proportions of the different components that constitute the mass fill are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The storage requirements for the batched fill are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The methods used to quality control the mass fill are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Non-destructive testing (delivery note checks, weighing, dry densities).
  • Destructive testing (cube strength tests, wet densities, wide palette deflection tests).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The methods used to transport the mass fill are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Bagged.
  • Trucked.
  • Hydraulic feed.
  • Gravity feed.
  • Agitator cars.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the placement of mass fill. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The factors that govern preparation of the site to be filled are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Clean platform/footwall/floor.
  • Bulkhead construction for fill retainment.
  • Drainage.
  • Paddock and/or sock construction.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The methods used to give clear and timely communication of the intent to fill the site are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The personal protective equipment to be used by persons actively involved in the filling process is described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The methods used to quality control the filling material prior to placement are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the consequences of inadequate preparation, transportation and placement of fill. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence of inadequate preparation of mass fill on the quality of the placed material is described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Incorrect constituent material types.
  • Incorrect mix proportions.
  • Inadequate quality control.
  • Incorrect placed densities.
  • Incorrect permeability of fill.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of inadequately prepared fill on transportation are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Blockages.
  • Setting in transport columns.
  • Abrasion of transport columns.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of inadequate placement of fill on required support performance are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Drainage.
  • Paddock and sock construction.
  • Bulkhead construction.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of well prepared, transported and placed fill on the rock mass response to mining are described in accordance with mine specific conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Decrease in volumetric convergence.
  • Decrease in high face stresses.
  • Decrease in the occurrence of seismic activity and rockburst damage.
  • Maintain integrity of fractured rock.
  • Provide better stopping width control.
  • Increase in the percentage extraction.
  • Confinement of pillars.
  • Improved pillar stability.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The types of mass fill and factors that influence the quality of mass fill.
  • The batching and transportation of mass fill.
  • The placement of mass fill.
  • The consequences of inadequate preparation, transportation and placement of fill.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: The ability of the learner to provide explanations of the factors that influence good mass fill placement to rock mass response. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: Following the correct notification and preparation procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: Correct planning to ensure appropriate batching, transport and placement of fill. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the learner to relate aspects of preparation, transportation and placement to the quality and performance of the fill. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to assist in planning and executing the mass fill operation. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The understanding that different mass fill types can be engineered to suit requirements. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The knowledge and understanding that mass fill is an integral part of the support system for specific mining methods. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.