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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Evaluate the effect of face configuration on stress induced fracture patterns and orientations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256864  Evaluate the effect of face configuration on stress induced fracture patterns and orientations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
115751  Evaluate the effect of face confuguration on stress induced fracture patterns and orientations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

his unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of face configuration on stress induced fracture patterns an operations in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Evaluate the mechanisms causing stress induced fracturing.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of face shapes on the frequency and orientation of stress induced fracturing.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the effects of stress fracturing on stope stability.
  • Evaluate the changes that can be made in face shapes to improve stope stability. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Evaluate the mechanisms causing stress induced fracturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The environments where stress induced fracturing occurs are described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • High stress environments.
  • Confinement of the rock mass.
  • Distance ahead of the mining face.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The specific areas where stress induced fracturing is encountered are listed in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Remnants.
  • Deep and ultra deep mines.
  • Lagging faces.
  • High horizontal stress environments.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of rock mass properties on the frequency and distribution of stress fractures is described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Rock type.
  • Rock strength.
  • Deformation moduli.
  • Poisson's ratio.
  • Geological discontinuities.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of face shapes on the frequency and orientation of stress induced fracturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An understanding of the variation in stress induced fracturing with stope geometry is demonstrated in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • High and low angled fractures.
  • Orientation parallel to induced compressive stress directions.
  • Fracture frequency.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An explanation of the effect of compressive stress distribution ahead of the face on fracture frequency is provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Stress distribution curves.
  • Rock strength.
  • The effect of geological structures.
  • Confinement.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the effects of stress fracturing on stope stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The hazards presented by the frequency and orientation of stress induced fracturing is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Low angle fracturing.
  • Fracturing above gullies.
  • Face buckling.
  • Closure.
  • Block size.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Evaluate the changes that can be made in face shapes to improve stope stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Methods of improving stope stability related to stress induced fracturing by changes in mining strategy are described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Leads and Lags.
  • Advanced strike gullies.
  • Wide raise.
  • Sidings.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The hazards associated with changes in mining direction are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Systems to manage face shapes are described in accordance with mine specific procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of poor face shape management are described in terms of effect on production, mine infrastructure and occupational health and safety. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.

    Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.

    Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The mechanisms causing stress induced fracturing.
  • The influence of face shapes on the frequency and orientation of stress induced fracturing.
  • The effects of stress fracturing on stope stability.
  • The changes that can be made in face shapes to improve stope stability.

    Causes and effects (Safety and Health):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to explain failure mechanisms and the environments where stress induced fracturing occurs. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note:
  • The ability and willingness of the learner to explain that stress induced fracturing can result in increased hazard unless managed, which could affect the team's safety. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to effectively influence mining geometry by explanation and persuasion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to observe, analyse and evaluate undesirable face shapes and mining practice in an attempt to improve the safety of the team. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The appropriate communication with other personnel to assist their understanding of the need to modify mining practice to manage stress induced fracturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note:
  • The use of science and technology is promoted through the understanding of the mechanisms and control of stress induced fracturing. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The understanding of stress induced fracturing as a cause and a result of mining practices and geological factors. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 115751, "Evaluate the effect of face configuration on stress induced fracture patterns and orientations", Level 4, 3 credits.

    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Chamber of Mines Strata Control Certificate.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.