SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the causes of falls of ground 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256851  Demonstrate an understanding of the causes of falls of ground 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
115750  Demonstrate a basic understanding of the causes of falls of ground  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in the mining and minerals sector.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills and knowledge of the causes of falls of ground in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of planes that bound rock susceptible to fallout.
  • Demonstrate an ability to identify potential falls of ground.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the factors relating to substandard mining practice that contributes to the fall of ground hazard.
  • Record and report potential falls of ground. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of planes that bound rock susceptible to fallout. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The types of planes forming the boundaries of loose rock are listed in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Faults.
  • Dykes.
  • Bedding planes and layering.
  • Joints and veins.
  • Stress fractures.
  • Blast induced fractures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The properties of bounding planes that influences the stability of potentially loose rock are listed and described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Roughness.
  • Filling.
  • Presence of water.
  • Cohesion.
  • Aperture.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The factors that control the size and shape of loose rock are described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Dip and dip direction.
  • Intersection of multiple planes.
  • Cleavage.
  • Foliations and flow structures.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an ability to identify potential falls of ground. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The methods used to identify loose rocks are described in accordance with mine specific regulations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Visual examination.
  • Sounding.
  • Instrumentation.
  • Software.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The support in the immediate vicinity of the potentially loose rock is assessed and the consequences of sub-standard support installation on falls of ground explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Quality of installation.
  • Spacing.
  • Failure of support.
  • Position.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effects of improper identification of loose rock(s) are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The appropriate decisions that can be made to ameliorate the hazards associated with the loose rock are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Bar.
  • Support.
  • Blast down.
  • Re-establish beyond the loose rock.
  • Abandon and barricade workings.
  • Withdraw personnel.
  • Seek advice.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The influence of training, coaching and mentoring on the ability of personnel to identify, report, record and manage falls of ground is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the factors relating to substandard mining practice that contributes to the fall of ground hazard. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence of elevated stress concentrations and beam stability on falls of ground are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of blasting practice on falls of ground are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Blast induced fractures.
  • Separation of rock bounding planes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of substandard support practice is explained in terms of increasing the potential for falls of ground. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The relationship between substandard layouts and falls of ground is explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Gully/roadway positions and geometry.
  • Location of access and service development.
  • Local and regional pillar positioning and cutting.
  • Local and regional face shapes and configurations.
  • Substandard leads/lags.
  • Bord widths, intersection sizes.
  • Face advance(s).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Record and report potential falls of ground. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Observations and evaluations are recorded and presented in accordance with mine specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The relevant personnel are informed of the potential for falls of ground effectively and timeously in accordance with legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The consequences of not communicating the potential for falls of ground are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Understanding of planes that bound rock susceptible to fallout.
  • Ability to identify potential falls of ground.
  • Understanding of the factors relating to substandard mining practice that contributes to the fall of ground hazard.
  • Recording and reporting potential falls of ground.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational Health, Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The sourcing of information relating to the learners working environment and relating the characteristics of this environment to potential falls of ground sites. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The learner must be able to collect and analyse data relating to the factors that could influence falls of ground specific to the mine. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazardous and sub-standard conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically show responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The use of appropriate computer techniques to identify potential falls of ground. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: Understanding of potential causes of falls of ground is a step towards mitigating the risks associated with falls of ground and hence intrinsically shows responsibility towards the health and safety of oneself and the team. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 115750, "Demonstrate an understanding of the causes of falls of ground", Level 4, 2 credits.

    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.