SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between geological structures and mining layouts 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256848  Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between geological structures and mining layouts 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for persons who are required to ensure stability of underground excavations by optimising mining layouts.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills and understanding of the relationship between geological structures and mining layouts in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of various geological structures and the influence these have on the surrounding rock mass.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how the presence of geological structures affects the mining process.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how mining layouts can be modified to improve ground control in the vicinity of geological structures.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of how mining layouts can be modified to reduce the risk of potentially hazardous seismic events in the vicinity of geological structures. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of various geological structures and the influence these have on the surrounding rock mass. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The types of geological structures commonly encountered in mining and a description of their origin is provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Faults and thrusts.
  • Joints and veins.
  • Dykes and sills.
  • Lava flow structures (tuff, pilloids).
  • Rolls, slopes and terraces.
  • Potholes.
  • Bedding, layering and laminations.
  • Shears.
  • Domes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of the frequency, orientation and disposition of geological structures on the mechanical behaviour of the rock mass is described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Continuum.
  • Discontinuum.
  • Isotropy.
  • Elasticity.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence that geological structures may have on state of stress of the surrounding rock mass is described in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of how the presence of geological structures affects the mining process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence that geological structures have on local strata control is explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Face parallel structures.
  • Shallow dipping structures in the hanging wall.
  • Weak hanging wall strata.
  • Creation of unstable wedges.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Risks associated with trenching, slotting or rolling the stope to negotiate geological structures are described with reference to the formation of unstable wedges. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effect of mining induced shear stresses on existing planes of weakness is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The need for re-establishment beyond large structures or blocks of unpay ground and the effect that this has on the mining layout is explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Regional stability.
  • Access development.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of how mining layouts can be modified to improve ground control in the vicinity of geological structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relationship between the angle of intersection between the mining face and geological structures is described with respect to quasi-static and dynamic hangingwall stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The relationship between face length and the length of geological structure exposed is described with respect to hazard management. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of incorporating geological structures within pillars on mining layouts is described in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of how mining layouts can be modified to manage the risk of potential seismic events in the vicinity of geological structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The reasons for preferably mining away from potentially hazardous geological structures prior to extensive mining taking place is explained with reference to mining induced stresses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of the angle between the mining face and geological structures ahead of the face is explained and related to mining induced shear stresses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The use of bracket pillars to stabilize geological structures is described in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Size of pillar.
  • Shape of pillar.
  • Single or double sided pillars.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following items reflect the type of knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The various geological structures and the influence these have on the surrounding rock mass.
  • How the presence of geological structures affects the mining process.
  • How mining layouts can be modified to improve ground control in the vicinity of geological structures.
  • How mining layouts can be modified to manage the risk of potential seismic events in the vicinity of geological structures.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The learner's ability to systematically assess geological structures and their influence on mining layouts. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: The ability of the learner to understand the influence that geological structures have on mining layouts. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The ability to understand the rationale for design of optimal mining layouts, which addresses the hazards of mining in the vicinity of geological structures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 
    Elective  77963   Further Education and Training Certificate: Mining/Exploration Geology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.