SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of bolting as underground in-stope support 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256841  Demonstrate an understanding of bolting as underground in-stope support 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills and understanding of bolting as in-stope support in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the environments in which bolting is used as in-stope support.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of bolts used for in-stope bolting.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of beam theory.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the interaction between in-stope bolting and rock mass behaviour.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of quality installation on in-stope bolting effectiveness. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the environments in which bolting is used as in-stope support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The use of in-stope bolting in the mining industry is described in terms of its ability to ensure improved ground conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Gold deposits.
  • Platinum deposits.
  • Coal deposits.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    A basic explanation of the composition of the hangingwall to be bolted in each of the mining environments is provided in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Sedimentary coal deposits.
  • Sedimentary gold deposits.
  • Igneous platinum deposits.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The behaviour of the hangingwall to be bolted in each of the mining environments is explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Closure.
  • Shear on bedding planes.
  • Shear on fractures/joints.
  • Separation on bedding planes.
  • Keyblocks.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of bolts used for in-stope bolting. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Types of bolts used for in-stope bolts are listed and briefly described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Full column grouted rebar/ropes.
  • End-anchored mechanical shell bolts/ropes.
  • End-anchored grouted bolts/ropes.
  • Friction stabilisers.
  • Active vs passive types.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Grouting methods employed with in-stope bolts are listed and briefly explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Pumpable grout.
  • Cement capsules.
  • Resin capsules.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Installation methods are briefly described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Drilling equipment.
  • Effect of stoping width on bolt type.
  • Effect of stoping width on installation.
  • Example pattern of installation and angle of installation.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of beam theory. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The modes of beam failure are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Tensile: Failure in centre of beam.
  • Shear: On edges of beam.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The issues that affect beam strength are described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Beam thickness.
  • Beam length.
  • Rock type.
  • Rock block sizes.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the interaction between in-stope bolting and rock mass behaviour. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Beam support methods are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Suspension of beam.
  • Reinforcement of beam.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The effect of in-stope bolting on beam behaviour is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Increase beam thickness.
  • Prevent shear on bedding, fracture and joint planes.
  • Prevent the loss of keyblocks.
  • Increases beam strength.
  • Reduce closure.
  • Reduce unsupported beam length.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of quality installation on in-stope bolting effectiveness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The important issues to quality control are listed and explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Angle of installation.
  • Length of hole.
  • Diameter of hole.
  • Grout quality.
  • Tension.
  • Spacing.
  • Position.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of the re-tensioning of end-anchored bolts is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The consequences of unacceptable installation quality are explained in terms of legal and operational rerquirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the environments in which bolting is used as in-stope support.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of bolts used for in-stope bolting.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of beam theory.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the interaction between in-stope bolting and rock mass behaviour.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of quality installation on in-stope bolting effectiveness.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note:
  • The ability and willingness of the learner to explain that in-stope bolting can be instrumental in ensuring the team's safety in the correct environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to understand that bolting is only effective in the appropriate geotechnical environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The appropriate communication with other personnel to assist their understanding of the effects of in-stope bolting on ground conditions and safety. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The understanding of the effect of a specialise support system such as in-stope bolting on the safety of workers confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SABS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.