SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between gully, panel and siding geometry on excavation stability 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256839  Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between gully, panel and siding geometry on excavation stability 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are required to ensure stability of underground excavations by optimising gully layouts.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of the effect of gully geometry on working place stability in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence gully geometries.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of gully sidings on excavation stability.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of panel geometries on excavation stability.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the consequences of unfavourable gully, panel and siding geometry on excavation stability. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence gully geometries. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relationship between orientation of fractures around gullies and exposure to rock related hazards is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The factors that need to be considered when designing gullies are provided in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Creation of shallow dipping fractures.
  • Closure.
  • Span/width across gully.
  • Forces and vibrations associated with snatch block anchorage.
  • Frequent weakening and undermining of gully shoulders.
  • Gully depth.
  • Siding depth.
  • Siding inclination.
  • Advance of gully relative to the face.
  • Position of gully face and stope face.
  • Gully support.
  • Blasting practice.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An understanding that certain stress environments require different gully geometries is demonstrated in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Low stress environments.
  • Intermediate stress environments.
  • High stress environments.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of not considering factors that influence the stability of gullies related to the rockfall and rockburst hazard are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of gully sidings on excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence a siding has on moving adversely orientated fractures away from the gully is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The manner in which the siding results in the gully sidewalls being sited away from high stope abutment stresses is explained in terms of excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The relationship between gully and siding hangingwall profile and the formation of brows is explained in the context of excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The importance of up to date sidings of correct depth is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The importance of implementing the correct blasting sequence for sidings is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of panel geometries on excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An understanding of stress and fracture orientations around panels in shallow, intermediate and deep mining environments is demonstrated in the context of excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An understanding of the layout of a panel with respect to access and egress within the context of risk is demonstrated in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effect fracturing and jointing of rock surrounding a panel has on the choice of panel geometry to be implemented is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The relationship between panel advance, sequence of mining and stope closure on stability is described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the consequences of unfavourable gully, panel and siding geometry on excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The increase in the exposure of rock-related hazards associated with unfavourable stope, gully and siding geometries is described in the context of excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The magnitude and severity of rock related hazards and risks associated with unfavourable stope, gully and siding geometries is described in terms of legal and operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Local collapses within workings.
  • Collapse of workings within mine.
  • Collapse of entire mine.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of increased spans at the intersection of the stope and gully hangingwall on beam stability is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The interrelation between the stability of sidings, gullies and panels are interrelated is explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence gully geometries.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of gully sidings on excavation stability.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of panel geometries on excavation stability.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the consequences of unfavourable gully, panel and siding geometry on excavation stability.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to understand how the gully, panel and siding geometry influences excavation stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note:
  • The learner's ability to holistically assess the impact of stope geometries on excavation stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to relate factors that influence gully, siding and panel stability to hazard creation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note:
  • The ability to understand the rationale for design of optimal stope geometries, which ameliorates hazards associated with excavation stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The knowledge and understanding that the design of optimal stope geometries form a fundamental part of mine design. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.