SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of common mining methods 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256838  Demonstrate an understanding of common mining methods 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of common mining method layouts, sequencing, equipment and rock engineering implications in the RSA mining industry on working place stability in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence the choice of mining methods in the South African mining industry.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of mining methods on extraction sequencing.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the choice of conventional and mechanized equipment related to common mining methods.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of rock engineering implications of common mining methods. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence the choice of mining methods in the South African mining industry. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concepts of conventional and mechanized mining methods are explained as adopted in the South African mining and minerals industry. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The common mining methods used are described in the context of the South African mining industry. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Scattered.
  • Longwall/shortwall.
  • Sequential grid.
  • Pillar extraction.
  • Open strip/pit.
  • Bord and pillar.
  • Room and pillar.
  • Cut and fill.
  • Open stoping.
  • Drift and fill.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The factors that influence the choice of mining method are explained in the context of the SA mining industry. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Geometry of the orebody.
  • Mechanical properties of the country rock and orebody.
  • Depth of the orebody below surface.
  • Geological structures.
  • Economic value of the orebody.
  • Environmental considerations.
  • Relevant legislation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The dominant role that orebody geometry and operating depth plays in the selection of mining methods is explained in the context of the SA mining industry. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Shallow tabular.
  • Intermediate and deep tabular.
  • Near vertical small width.
  • Massive.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The factors relating to infrastructure requirements, logistics and capital and operating costs are explained in terms of their influence the selection of mining methods. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of mining methods on extraction sequencing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relationship between mining method and extraction ratio is explained and related to the incorporation of pillars. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The potential for creating remnants is described in terms of the typical South African mining methods. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The factors that need to be considered when designing extraction sequences are explained in terms of the typical mining methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Reduction of rockfall hazards.
  • Reduction of rockburst hazards.
  • Management of subsidence.
  • Optimisation of orebody resource.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of geological structures are explained in terms of the extraction sequence. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Dykes.
  • Sills.
  • Faults.
  • Potholes.
  • Domes.
  • Incompetent layers.
  • Shears.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the choice of conventional and mechanized equipment related to common mining methods. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relationship between size and geometry of the orebody and selection of the suite of equipment is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Drilling, loading, supporting and tramming equipment are described in terms of typical use in conventional mining methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Hand-held pneumatic drills.
  • Scapers and winches.
  • Track bound locomotives.
  • Track bound front-end loaders.
  • Skips.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Drilling, loading, supporting and tramming equipment are described in terms of typical use in mechanized-conventional (hybrid) mining methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Hand-held drills.
  • Loaders and scoops.
  • Feeder-breaker.
  • Roofbolter.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Drilling, loading, supporting and tramming equipment are described in terms of typical use in mechanized mining methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Drilling booms.
  • Load, haul and dump trucks.
  • Dozers.
  • Scalers.
  • Roofbolters.
  • Continuous miners.
  • Shuttle cars.
  • Shields, shearer, AFC, stage loader and pantechnicon.
  • Front-end loaders.
  • Utility vehicles.
  • Tunnel boring machines.
  • Cactus grabs.
  • Conveyor belts.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The infrastructure requirements that support either conventional or mechanized equipment requirements are described in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The advantages and limitations of using conventional or mechanized equipment are described in the context of mining operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of rock engineering implications of common mining methods. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The methods applied for the screening and selection of suitable mining methods are described in terms of rock engineering. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Rock mass characterisation.
  • Geological models.
  • Retrospective analyses.
  • Computational techniques.
  • Instrumentation and monitoring.
  • Empirical rules.
  • Theory.
  • Local knowledge.
  • Best practice.
  • Codes of practice.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The factors that influence the choice of mining methods are explained in terms of rock engineering. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Potential for rockbursts.
  • Ambient stress levels.
  • Quasi-static stability of excavation wall rocks.
  • Surface effects.
  • Properties of the host rock and orebody.
  • Frequency, orientation and character of geological discontinuities.
  • Pillar requirements.
  • Creation of high stressed areas.
  • Support requirements.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The applicability of various support systems are explained in the context of different mining methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Regular closely spaced pillars.
  • Stabilising and barrier pillars.
  • Timber packs.
  • Tendons.
  • Mass fill.
  • Elongates.
  • Linings.
  • Shaft and protective pillars.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The reduction of the rockfall and rockburst hazard related to the selection of stable excavation spans are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The role of pillars and mass fill are explained in terms of reducing the rockfall, rockburst hazard and improving stability. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Knowledge and understanding that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The concepts of conventional and mechanised mining methods as adopted in the South African mining and minerals industry.
  • Describe the common mining methods used in the South African mining industry.
  • Factors that influence the choice of mining methods.
  • The dominant role that orebody geometry and operating depth plays in the selection of mining methods.
  • The factors relating to infrastructure requirements, logistics and capital and operating costs that influence the selection of mining methods.
  • The impact of mining methods on extraction sequencing.
  • The choice of conventional and mechanised equipment related to common mining methods.
  • Rock engineering implications of common mining methods.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note:
  • The ability to integrate with design team. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note:
  • The learner's ability to effectively participate in the selection process. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The use of rock engineering criteria, equipment suite constraints and orebody characteristics to aid in the understanding of mining method selection. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The knowledge and understanding that mining method selection, sequencing, equipment and rock engineering implications together have potential to reduce large scale instabilities. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.