SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of mining geology related to rock engineering 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256836  Demonstrate an understanding of mining geology related to rock engineering 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of mining geology related to rock engineering in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the field of mining geology as applied to the South African mining and minerals sector.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of sedimentology, igneous petrology and metamorphic geology on the application of rock engineering principles.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between appropriate geological logging and mapping and application of rock engineering principles.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence that geostatistical evaluations have on rock engineering design. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the field of mining geology as applied to the South African mining and minerals sector. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The field of mining geology is defined as applied to the South African mining and minerals sector. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The sub-fields that constitute the discipline of mining geology are described and related to relevant mine specific functions or industry norms. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Drill core logging.
  • Exposure mapping.
  • Sedimentology.
  • Igneous petrology.
  • Metamorphic geology.
  • Stratigraphy and lithology.
  • Structural geology.
  • Grade control and evaluation.
  • Map construction.
  • Geostatistics.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The major gold deposits and its associated minerals exploited in South Africa are listed and related to the dominant geological events. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Deposition of the Witwatersrand basin: Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Carbon Leader Reef, Elsburg Reefs, Main Reef, Vaal Reef, Basal Reef, Leader Reef, Kimberley Reefs, Joel Reef, South Reef, Beatrix Reef, Kloof Reef, E A Reef.
  • Barberton Greenstone belt.
  • Murchison greenstone belt.
  • Giyani greenstone belt.
  • Pietersburg greenstone belt.
  • Muldersdrift greenstone belt.
  • Amalia greenstone belt.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The major platiniferous and chrome deposits exploited in South Africa are listed and related to the dominant geological events. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Critical and Upper Bushveld Igneous Complex: Merensky Reef, UG2, Platreef.
  • Lower and middle Bushveld Igneous Complex: LG6, LG6a, MG0-MG7.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The major diamondiferous deposits exploited in South Africa are listed and related to the dominant geological events. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Intrusions: Kimberlite and dunite pipes.
  • Alluvial deposits.
  • Off-shore dredging.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The major coal fields exploited in South Africa are listed and related to the province(s) in which they occur. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Tuli, Ellisras, Mopane, Tshipise, Springbok flats and Pafuri: Northern Province.
  • Witbank, Kangwane, Highveld and Ermelo: Mpumalanga.
  • Free State coalfields: Free State.
  • South Rand, Vereeniging and Sasolburg: Gauteng.
  • Klip River, Utrecht, Vryheid, Nongoma, Molteno-Indwe and Somkele: Kwazulu Natal.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of sedimentology, igneous petrology and metamorphic geology on the application of rock engineering principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influences of sedimentation and the resulting characteristic imprints left in the rock mass are explained and related to rock engineering design. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Bedding planes.
  • Cross-bedding and trough-cross bedding.
  • Coarsening or fining sequences.
  • Slumps, inter-fingering lenses and ripple marks.
  • Cleats.
  • Induration and burnt horizons or regions.
  • Bioturbation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influences of igneous intrusions and extrusions and their characteristic imprints left in the rock mass are explained and related to rock engineering design. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Layer thicknesses.
  • Domes and imbricates.
  • Dykes and sills.
  • Laccoliths, lopoliths and monoliths.
  • Thrusts.
  • Potholes.
  • Joint patterns.
  • Shear bands.
  • Slope and terraces.
  • Ball and pillow structures.
  • Flow planes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influences of graded metamorphism and its characteristic imprints left in the rock mass are explained and related to rock engineering design. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Schistocity.
  • Gneissocity.
  • Contorted and folded beds.
  • Transverse isotropy.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effects of sedimentation, metamorphism and igneous petrology on the strength of the rock mass are explained in the context of mining geology related to rock engineering. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Scale effect.
  • Weak and strong layers.
  • Preferred mineral alignment.
  • Orientation of rock fabric.
  • Induration, burnt or chill zones.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between appropriate geological logging and mapping and application of rock engineering principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The manner in which mining methods are selected are explained ion terms of the results of logging and mapping. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The manner in which geological logging results and maps are used are explained in terms of the design of local and regional mining layouts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Location of excavations.
  • Dimensions and orientation of excavations.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The manner in which geological logging results and maps are used are explained in terms of the design of local and regional support systems. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Support types.
  • Support densities.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of incorrect construction and representation of geological maps and logs on rock engineering design are explained in terms of legal and operational requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the influence that geostatistical evaluations have on rock engineering design. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence that grade distribution and quality of ore has on the selection of the mining width and the impact on excavation and support design is explained in the context of mining geology related to rock engineering. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The quality and distribution of grade within an orebody is related to the siting of local and regional support pillars. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The manner in which grade and quality distribution might dictate the selection of the mining sequence and method are explained in the context of mining geology related to rock engineering. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of not accounting for grade and quality distribution within rock engineering design are explained in the context of mining geology related to rock engineering. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the field of mining geology as applied to the South African mining and minerals sector.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of sedimentology, igneous petrology and metamorphic geology on the application of rock engineering principles.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between appropriate geological logging and mapping and application of rock engineering principles.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence that geostatistical evaluations have on rock engineering design.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to relate mining geology to aspects of rock engineering design. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note:
  • The learner's ability to source data relating to commodities and relate these to geological events. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to relate the typical structures formed in the rock mass through geological processes to rock engineering design. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and descriptions to demonstrate understanding. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note:
  • The ability to understand the rationale for design of optimal mining layouts, which addresses the hazards of mining in the vicinity of poor geological regimes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The knowledge and understanding that mining geology forms a fundamental part of mine design and cannot be viewed in isolation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SABS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.