SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence the stability of beams 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256835  Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that influence the stability of beams 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the stability of beams in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the types of beams formed in underground excavations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the distribution of stresses in beams.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of arch formation in a cracked beam.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of beam support. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the types of beams formed in underground excavations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The types of beams formed in underground mining excavations are described using simple, well annotated sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Fixed beams.
  • Cantilevers.
  • Voussoirs (broken beams).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The circumstances that could lead to the formation of different types of beams are explained using practical examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The natural discontinuities that define the boundaries along the length of the beam are described in accordance with the rock type in which the beam is formed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Bedding planes.
  • Flow structures.
  • Thrusts and low angled faults.
  • Joints and slips.
  • Domes.
  • Slope and terraces.
  • Foliation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The discontinuities that could potentially result in the formation of a broken beam are listed and described in the context of beam stability. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Bedding planes.
  • Flow structures.
  • Thrusts and low angled faults.
  • Joints and slips.
  • Domes.
  • Blast fractures.
  • Stress fractures.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the distribution of stresses in beams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The terminology used to describe points within the beam for analyses of stresses are described using simple, well annotated sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Hinge points.
  • Thrust lines.
  • Flexure point.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The concept of beam deflection is explained for the various types of beams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Elastic modulus.
  • Density.
  • Imposed stress.
  • Poisson's ratio.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The method(s) used to calculate the stresses imposed on a beam are explained in the context of beam stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The localities within a beam that are subject to compressional stress, tensile stresses and shear stresses are described using simple, well annotated sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Fixed beams.
  • Cantilevers.
  • Voussoirs (broken beams).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The relationship between beam length for a fixed beam thickness and the distribution of the components of stress are explained for the different types of beams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The relationship between beam thickness for a fixed beam length and the distribution of the components of stress are explained for the different types of beams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The influence of discontinuities that crosscut a beam on the stress distribution and deformation of the beam are explained in the context of beam stability. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanism of arch formation in a cracked beam. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The zones of inter-bed/layer separation for a fixed cracked beam are illustrated using simple, well annotated sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The properties of a broken beam that influences its mechanics of deformation are described in the context of beam stability. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Elastic modulus of broken material.
  • Cohesion of contacts between material.
  • Variations in density between material.
  • Size and geometry of bounding material.
  • Friction angle of contact planes.
  • Poisson's ratio of individual material.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The flexure profile of broken beams with fixed cross-sectional areas and varying lengths are illustrated diagrammatically. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The failure modes of a broken beam are described and related to the span: thickness ratio in the context of beam stability. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range must include:
  • Low span: Thickness ratio - shear failure at abutments.
  • High span: Thickness ratio - buckling and tensile.
  • Low rock material strength or moderate span: thickness ratio-spalling or crushing of central or abutment voussoirs.
  • Compressive failure.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of beam support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The principle of beam suspension is described with cognizance taken of the thickness, homogeneity, anchor point and weight of the beam. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The principle of beam reinforcing is described with cognizance taken of the increase in shear resistance of discontinuities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The types and functions of support used to suspend and reinforce beams are described in the context of beam stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of excavation width and adhering to correct mining layouts are described in terms of the stability of beams. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:

    Knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:
  • The types of beams formed in underground excavations.
  • The distribution of stresses in beams.
  • The mechanism of arch formation in a cracked beam.
  • The principles of beam support.

    Causes and effects (Occupational Health and Safety):
  • Use of equipment.
  • Use of personal protective equipment.
  • Adherence to occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Work related hazards and associated risks.

    Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies and standards:
  • Occupational health, safety and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to sketch and annotate beam types, stress distribution and deformation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note:
  • The ability of the learner to relate beam thickness, length, imposed stress and nature of the beam to stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note:
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note:
  • The knowledge and understanding of the role that stable beams play in work place stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SABS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.

    Site-Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH and S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.