SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply advanced techniques for operating four wheel drive (4WD) vehicles in on-road and off-road conditions 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
254154  Apply advanced techniques for operating four wheel drive (4WD) vehicles in on-road and off-road conditions 
ORIGINATOR
Task Team - Recreational Driving 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 11 - Services Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for learners seeking to apply the advanced concepts related to 4WD utilisation. This unit standard will enable the learner to practically demonstrate the knowledge and skills required to handle a 4WD vehicle on-road and off-road, understand preventative maintenance and handle recovery situations and equipment, in an environmentally considerate manner. 4WD vehicles include all terrain vehicles (ATVs), Quad and Off-road Motor Bikes.

The qualifying learner is capable of:
  • Explaining the differences in driving a 4WD or an ATV or a Quad Bike or an Off road Motor Bike on-road and off-road.
  • Demonstrating knowledge of passenger and vehicle safety precautions.
  • Demonstrating understanding of the features of a 4WD or an ATV or a Quad Bike or an Off road Motor Bike for off-road conditions.
  • Demonstrating an understanding of off-road conditions and their relation to vehicle preparation and behaviour.
  • Demonstrating basic recovery techniques.
  • Demonstrating an understanding and application of techniques typical to specific obstacles that are nature and terrain dependent.

    This unit standard include all terrain vehicles (ATVs), Quad and Off-road Motor Bikes, however, learners that are found competent to operate a standard 4WD vehicle or an ATV will not be competent to operate a Quad or an Off-road Motor Bike unless they repeat this unit standard for a Quad or an Off-road Motor Bike and vice versa. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that a learner will be competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 2.
  • The techniques for operating a four wheel drive (4WD) vehicle at NQF Level 3.
  • It is assumed that the learner accessing this standard will be in possession of a Code A or B or EB Drivers Licence or any such license deemed applicable in terms of the legislation in force at the time and has an understanding of the knowledge required of a licensed road user. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the differences in driving 4WD on-road and off-road. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Vehicle dimensions are explained in relation to on-road and off-road operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The centre of gravity is explained in relation to on-road and off-road operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Stopping distances for on-road and off-road operations are explained in relation to each context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The function of tyres is explained in relation to on-road and off-road operations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate basic knowledge of passenger and vehicle safety precautions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concept of "safety first" is explained in relation to 4WD on-road and off-road utilisation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The use of seatbelts is explained in relation to safety precautions required for on-road and off-road utilisation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The handbook and maintenance schedule is reviewed in relation to on-road and off-road operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A pre-trip preparation is carried out on a vehicle in terms of the trip to be undertaken. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    A pre-trip preparation must include but is not limited to checking fluids, tyres, spare wheel and lights, securing load and loose items.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The rules of convoy driving and communication are explained with examples. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The critical tools required for emergencies are identified and explained in relation to their functions in off-road emergency situations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Critical tools may include but are not limited to recommended tools, spares, repair kits for puncture and exhaust, first aid kits, maintenance of medicine, fire extinguishers.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate understanding of the features of a 4WD vehicle for off-road conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The ergonomics that are applicable to a vehicle are explained in relation to on-road and off-road conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Ergonomics include but are not limited to correct seating positions, hand positions on steering wheel, comfort and fatigue (frequency of stops).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The range of shift options and applications are demonstrated for a variety of operating conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Shift options include but are not limited to when to change range, the purpose of range change and conditions including speed and use of clutch.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    An understanding of matching the vehicle and accessories to varied conditions is demonstrated for a variety of operating conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Matching includes but is not limited to identifying requirements in terms of passenger and load space, matching vehicle to terrain and assessing fuel range in relation to specific use of vehicle.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    An understanding of the applications of tyres is demonstrated for a variety of operating conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The applications of tyres include the construction of tyres, the different types including road-biased, all-terrain, mud-terrain, the selection and functioning of tyres, tyre pressures and tyre pressure gauges.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of off-road conditions and their relation to vehicle preparation and behaviour. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The vehicle dynamics for off-road utilisation are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Vehicle dynamics include but are not limited to the approach and departure angles, break-over angle, clearance, centre of gravity and braking distances.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The terrain and its varying effects on the vehicle are explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Effects on vehicle include but are not limited to steering, accelerator and braking response.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A 4WD vehicle is prepared for off-road conditions and specific operational requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Vehicle preparation includes but is not limited to anticipating the effects of sand, dust, water, grass, mud on the vehicle and special maintenance procedures required before and after the vehicle is or has been exposed to such operating conditions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    An understanding of the environmental principles with regard to considerate off-road utilisation is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Environmental principles include but are not limited to:
  • Terrain specific requirements: Respect for eco-sensitive areas such as beaches, forests, veld, water sources, salt pans.
  • Terrain damage: Minimising erosion, littering, tree damage, sticking to existing trails.
  • Driving techniques: Speed, wheel spin, recovery techniques (tree protectors).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate basic recovery techniques. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Recovery dynamics and selection of secure recovery points are explained with reference to varying off-road conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Recovery dynamics include but are not limited to safety, selection of appropriate recovery equipment, use of equipment, equipment matched to vehicle and recovery points including identification and selection thereof.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An understanding of recovery equipment and safety procedures is explained with examples. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Safety procedures include preparation of equipment and vehicles, safety of equipment, vehicles and people, equipment selection and techniques.
  • Recovery equipment excludes kinetic straps and ropes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Elementary recovery techniques are applied in varying off-road conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Elementary recovery techniques are demonstrated in relation to shackles, pull strap recovery, straight-line winching and hand signals to be used in recovery.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Apply driving techniques typical to specific obstacles that are nature and terrain dependent. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Off-road obstacles and off-road route selection is explained with references to the regulatory framework. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Factors influencing off-road operation are explained with specific reference to varying off-road conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors to be considered include but are not limited to identifying of problem areas of obstacles and to the 4WD vehicle's accessories, angles and dimensions.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Traction in relation to the maintaining and/or loss thereof and traction control aids are explained in relation to varying off-road conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Typical obstacles that apply to off-road conditions are explained in relation to how they will affect vehicle handling. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Typical obstacles include ascents, descents, rocks and rough terrain, water and mud, river crossings, sand driving, ditches and dongas, veld conditions and grass and cambers.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Any individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Regulatory framework. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems using critical and creative thinking processes are addressed when learners reflect on impending danger and ways to avoid hazardous situations when driving 4WD. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community is addressed when imparting the necessary skills and knowledge to participants in various 4WD, operating conditions and to ensure that safety procedures are adhered to. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively are addressed when maximising use of vehicle features, uses and maintenance and safety procedures in various operating conditions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information are addressed when ensuring effective maintenance administration review processes and information received from national and international resources. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion are addressed when conveying information pertaining to operating conditions, obstacles, vehicle equipment, terrain and safety procedures to other drivers and members of the team or passengers in the vehicle. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of interrelated systems by recognising that undisciplined use of 4WD vehicles can negatively affect the environment and the ecology and when recognising how driving conditions, driving style and terrain affect vehicle performance and safety. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities ensuring that environmental conditions and safety and health procedures relating to 4WD's are adhered to and that convoy rules are adhered to and that environmental principles are considered in off-road utilisation. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50285   National Certificate: Professional Driving  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Africa Training Centre 
    2. Algoa Bus Company 
    3. Baobab Corporate Meets Lifestyle CC 
    4. Centre for Logistics Excellence (Pty) Ltd 
    5. DIONYSUS SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE PTY LTD 
    6. Durban Driver Training Centre Pty Ltd 
    7. Econo Driver Training 
    8. Gerotek Test Facilities 
    9. Golden Arrow Bus Services 
    10. He and She Driver Training Centre 
    11. Ikaheng HR Services Pty Ltd 
    12. Iyanda Holdings(Pty) Ltd 
    13. Learncorp 
    14. Licence Wise 
    15. Makwedeng Training 
    16. NOSA LOGISTICS PTY LTD 
    17. Nowethu Learning Institute cc 
    18. Offventure CC 
    19. Pal Passenger Bus Services 
    20. Phephani Learnerships cc 
    21. PUTCO Limited 
    22. SPINA Consultancy cc Cape Town 
    23. THABO Training and Services 
    24. The Training Connection 
    25. Tradefirst 2035 cc 
    26. Wheelman S A 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.