SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationship between rock strength, stress and fracturing 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
252854  Demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationship between rock strength, stress and fracturing 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
115631  Demonstrate basic knowledge and understanding of the interrelationship between rock strength, stress and fracturing  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are responsible for identifying the effects of stress and fracturing on rock strength.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of stress in the mining environment.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of rock strength.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the effects of stress on the rock mass.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the effect of stress on excavation stability.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, demonstrating basic knowledge and understanding of the interaction between rock strength, stress and fracturing in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Outcomes related to National Introductory Certificate to Mining and Minerals at Level 1. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of stress in the mining environment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Pre-mining concepts are explained in terms of the relevant mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Different mining depths.
  • Overburden weight.
  • Vertical stress.
  • Horizontal stress.
  • K-ratio.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The effect of mining operations on stress levels are explained in terms of the relevant mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Virgin stress.
  • Induced stress.
  • Field stress.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of rock strength. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Rock forming processes are explained in terms of variations in rock types. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Sedimentary.
  • Igneous.
  • Metamorphic rocks.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Variations in rock characteristics are described in the relevant mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Texture.
  • Grain size.
  • Strength.
  • Density.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Basic rock testing methods are described in terms of determining rock strength. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Point load.
  • Uni-axial compressive strength.
  • Tri-axial strength.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the effects of stress on the rock mass. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The failure of a rock sample under test conditions is described in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The relation between the rock sample testing and underground conditions is explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Stress fractures are described in the relevant mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fractures surrounding mining excavations.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the effect of stress on excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The effect of underground excavations on stress levels surrounding the excavation are explained in the context of mining operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The effects of different variables on stress fractures are explained in the context of mining operations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Increased stress levels.
  • Decreased rock strength.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The results of excessive stress fracturing are identified and explained in the relevant mining context. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Scaling from sidewalls.
  • Closure into the excavation.
  • Intersection with geological structures.
  • Friable hanging wall conditions.
  • Pillar failure.
  • Falls of ground.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Pre-mining concepts.
  • Effect of mining operations on stress levels.
  • Rock strength.
  • Rock forming processes.
  • Rock characteristics.
  • Rock testing methods.
  • Effect of stress on rock mass.
  • Effect of stress on excavation stability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: The learner demonstrates the understanding that in a mining production environment effective teamwork is of utmost importance in working safely and productively. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: The learner demonstrates understanding that activities, tools and equipment have to be managed effectively in the often isolated mining working environment. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: The learner demonstrates the ability to communicate effectively with co-workers in the mining working environment, in which team members are dependent upon each other. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: The learner demonstrates and understanding of and ability to use advanced mining technology in terms of production, safety and communication. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The learner demonstrates understanding that various systems contribute to the overall safety and productivity of an underground working environment, and that it is as important to contribute to the efficiency of those systems as to be supported by them, particularly by means of following relevant procedures diligently. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 115631, "Demonstrate basic knowledge and understanding of the interrelationship between rock strength, stress and fracturing", Level 2, 2 credits.

    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site-specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    Unit Standard Justification:

    Level:

    Attribute, Level, Justification:
  • Skills, Level 3, Well-developed range.
  • Procedures, Level 3, Significant choice.
  • Context, Level 2, Routine and familiar.
  • Knowledge, Level 3, Some relevant theoretical.
  • Information processing, Level 2, Basic processing of readily available information.
  • Problem Solving, Level 3, A range of known responses to familiar problems, base on limited discretion and judgement.
  • Orientation of activities, Level 2, Directed.
  • Application of responsibility, Level 2,Some responsibility for quantity and quality, and possible responsibility for guiding others.
  • Orientation of scope of responsibility, Level 2, Under general supervision and quality control.

    Average Level = 2.44.
    Actual Level Assigned = 2.

    Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    Activity: Hours:
  • Classroom Teaching: 8 Hours.
  • On-The-Job Training: 12 Hours.
  • Mentoring required: 0 Hours.
  • Other (Specify): 0 Hours.

    Total = 20 Hours.

    Credits Achieved = 20/10 = 1.0.
    Credits Assigned = 2. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59549   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Adcorp Technical Training 
    2. ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI LTD (V/R) 
    3. KHUTALA COLLIERY 
    4. MESSINA PLATINUM MINES 
    5. Palabora Copper Pty Ltd 
    6. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    7. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    8. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.