SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of the mining process (drilling, blasting and cleaning) on installed support types and the surrounding rock mass 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
252774  Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of the mining process (drilling, blasting and cleaning) on installed support types and the surrounding rock mass 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who may be concerned with fall of ground hazards associated with drilling and blasting.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of drilling and blasting of the rock mass.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the factors that influence the performance of installed support.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the strata control hazards associated with incorrect drilling and blasting practices.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of drilling, blasting and cleaning on the rock mass and installed support.
  • Demonstrate the ability to record and report damage to the rock mass and support units. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following:
  • Outcomes associated with the National Introductory Certificate to Mining and Minerals (NQF Level 1). 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of drilling and blasting of the rock mass. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The practice of drilling is described in the context of the mining process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Drilling direction.
  • Burdens.
  • Drilling patterns.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The explosive types used on the specific mine is explained in the context of the mining process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The characteristics of common explosive types used on the mine are explained in terms of the mining process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Explosive sensitivity.
  • Explosive shock level.
  • Explosive gas content.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The process by which explosives break rock is explained in the context of the mining process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Gas creation.
  • Gas pressure.
  • Blast fracture creation and propagation.
  • Blast fracture patterns.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the factors that influence the performance of installed support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The factors influencing the performance of installed support are provided in the context of installed support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Slenderness or width to height ratio.
  • Installation angle.
  • Blocking and wedging.
  • Pre-stressed load maintenance.
  • Relationship between hole and tendon diameter (annulus).
  • Hole depth.
  • Grout and resin quality and curing times.
  • Topping up.
  • Corrosion.
  • Quality and strength of fabrics used as encasings.
  • Desired versus actual load deformation performance.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The consequences of poor installation quality are described in terms of the desired functions of support. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge of the strata control hazards associated with incorrect drilling and blasting practices. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Incorrect drilling and blasting practices are explained in the context of installed support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Large burden.
  • Drilling into rock surrounding excavation.
  • Poor drilling direction.
  • Overcharging.
  • Poor tamping.
  • Short holes.
  • Poor timing.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Strata control related effects of incorrect drilling are explained in the context of installed support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Damage to surrounding rock mass.
  • Falls of ground.
  • Irregular face shapes.
  • Stress concentrations.
  • Ineffective pre-conditioning.
  • Damage to support units.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Strata control related effects of incorrect blasting are explained in the context of installed support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Blast fracture propagation into hanging wall or sidewalls.
  • Blast damage to support units.
  • Excessive hanging wall vibrations.
  • Blasting gas intrusion into weakness planes in the surrounding rock.
  • Falls of ground.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of drilling, blasting and cleaning on the rock mass and installed support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The indirect causes of poor drilling, blasting and cleaning practice are explained in terms of the profile of the excavation and the rock mass and consequent support effectiveness. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Variation in excavation dimensions.
  • Variations in hanging wall/roof and footwall/floor profiles.
  • Eccentric loading.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Strata control related hazards caused by poor drilling and blasting are described and identified in the context of installed support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Overbreak/Damage to surrounding rockwalls.
  • Loosening of rockwalls.
  • Damage to and removal of support units.
  • Disturbance of geological structures.
  • Loss of bolt tension through loosened base plates.
  • Damage of encasing materials for packs and backfill.
  • Reduction in effective circumference of timber props.
  • Change in blocking of packs.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The risks associated with each of the strata control hazards caused by incorrect drilling, blasting and cleaning are assessed in accordance with the relevant procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate the ability to record and report damage to the rock mass and support units. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Blast related strata hazards to the rock mass and support units are recorded according to mine specific procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Blast related strata hazards to the rock mass and support units are reported to supervisors and other workers in accordance with the relevant procdures. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Knowledge relating to understanding of the effects of the mining process on the rock mass and installed support.
  • Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental issues
  • Significant hazards and risks related to the mining process (drilling, blasting and cleaning) on the rock mass and installed support:
    > Their consequences and resulting hazards.
    > Safe working practices.
  • Applicable statutory requirements:
    > Codes of practice.
  • Communication:
    > Reporting requirements and ability.
    > Communicating with relevant personnel.
    > Liaison with associated operations and personnel. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability to assess the risks associated with strata related hazards confirms ability to critically evaluate. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to promote correct drilling and blasting practice within the mining team as a way to ensure their own safety confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to understand that good drilling and blasting practice has to be planned and managed confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to identify various strata control related hazards and assess the associated risks. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Note: The appropriate communication with other personnel with regard to the need for correct drilling and blasting practice as well as areas of higher risk due to incorrect practices confirms ability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The use of science and technology is promoted through the basic understanding of the explosives and explosions. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The understanding of the need for good drilling and blasting practice to maintain stable excavations and ensure the health and safety of mining personnel. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/instructions.

    Site-Specific:
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Voluntary Codes of Practice.
  • Manufacturers Specifications.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.
  • Working Guides.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • Risk Assessment Documents.
  • South African Bureau of Standards and other standards.

    Unit Standard Justification:

    Level:

    Attribute; Level; Justification:
  • Skills; Level 2; Moderate in range.
  • Procedures; Level 3; Significant choice.
  • Context; Level 3; Range of familiar.
  • Knowledge; Level 3; Some relevant theoretical.
  • Information processing; Level 2; Basic processing of readily available information.
  • Problem Solving; Level 3; A range of known responses to familiar problems, base on limited discretion and judgement.
  • Orientation of activities; Level 3; Directed.
  • Orientation of scope of responsibility; Level 2; Some responsibility for quantity and quality, and possible responsibility for guiding others.
  • Application of responsibility; Level 3; Under general supervision quality checking.

    Average Level = 2.66.
    Actual Level Assigned = 3.

    Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    Activity; Hours:
  • Classroom Teaching; 12 hours.
  • On-The-Job Training; 26 hours.
  • Mentoring required; 0 hours.
  • Other (Specify); 0 hours.

    Total: 36 hours.

    Credits Achieved: 38/10 = 3.8.
    Credits Assigned = 4. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59549   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Adcorp Technical Training 
    2. ANGLOGOLD ASHANTI LTD (V/R) 
    3. KHUTALA COLLIERY 
    4. MESSINA PLATINUM MINES 
    5. Palabora Copper Pty Ltd 
    6. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    7. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    8. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.