SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply train dynamics and train handling 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
230420  Apply train dynamics and train handling 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Transport and Logistics Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 11 - Services Transport, Operations and Logistics 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A learner will be able to make intelligent decisions regarding the action to be taken under specific conditions in handling a train and apply the correct train dynamics and train handling to ensure the safety of rail employees and the public at large and contributing to the safe movement on rail and the welfare of South Africa. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
FETC NQF level 4 or at least Mathematics and/or Science at NQF Level 4
  • Standard: Sign on and off for locomotive crew.
  • Standard: Apply first aid protocols.
  • Standard: Identify, report and react to hazardous material sub-standard conditions.
  • Standard: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS in a workplace and its effects on a business sub-sector, own organization and a specific workplace.
  • Standard: Compile Trains.
  • Standard: Shunt rail vehicles.
  • Standard: Operate and regulate the safe movement of locomotive(s).
  • Standard: Operate a train equipped with a pneumatic controlled air brake system.
  • Standard: Operate a train equipped with a vacuum brake system.

    All relevant Basic Locomotive Unit Standards. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because performance must be carried out:
  • In different weather conditions.
  • During day and night time.
  • In different yard layouts/mainline/siding/(may or may not include overhead traction).
  • Different gradients, rail road and environmental conditions.
  • Within a specified operational time span.
  • Under hazardous and abnormal conditions.

    This unit standard is inclusive of the following types of locomotives:
  • Steam.
  • Diesel hydraulic.
  • Diesel electric.
  • electrical.
  • Electric/diesel (class 38)(direct current).
  • Motor coaches.

    This unit standard is inclusive of any freight/passenger train.

    This unit standard is further inclusive of and serves as prerequisite to the following specific trains and/or additional brake systems:
  • Abnormal loads.
  • Name trains.
  • Lux rail.
  • Special explosive trains.
  • High speed trains.
  • Test trains.
  • Air brake systems (100, 200 and 216 truck/wagons).
  • Graduated release.
  • Electronic controlled pneumatic brakes and distributed power.
  • Passenger and or freight trains.
  • Motorised rail maintenance and inspection vehicles.
  • Train dynamics.
  • Train handling.
  • The following brake systems:

    > Vacuum brakes.
    > Air brakes (direct release).

    This unit standard is exclusive of:
  • Automated centrally controlled monorail systems.

    The efficiency brake test must be conducted as soon as practicable in accordance with company specific procedures related to the operational conditions. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Define and explain physical concepts related to train dynamics and train handling concepts in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The physical concepts related to train dynamics and train handling is correctly defined and understood in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The impact of acceleration on train handling is correctly defined in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The impact of the different relevant forces on train handling are correctly defined explained and understood what in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The different forms of energy impacting on train handling and dynamics are correctly defined and understood in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Power in terms of train dynamics and train handling and what impact it will have on train handling is correctly defined and understood what is in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Define and identify different gradients and gradient forces impacting on train handling in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A gradient is correctly defined and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different gradients impacting on train dynamics and train handling are identified and correctly explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The differences between uphill gradients with and without compensated curves are correctly defined and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Interpret and understand a small-scale graphical display in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An understanding of a small-scale graphical display is correctly demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Curves, curves radius and direction on a small-scale graphical display is correctly identified in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Up - or down gradients, position and measurement, length of gradients displayed on a small-scale graphical display are correctly identified and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Advance planning of train handling to accommodate gradients and changing of gradients is correctly demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Stations, facing - and trailing points, and tunnels displayed on a small-scale graphical display are correctly identified in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Define and explain physical locomotive, Train and line characteristics in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The Locomotive, Train and Line characteristics is correctly defined and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different resistances impacting on train handling are correctly described and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Adhesion and the impact thereof on train handling is correctly described in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Identify and describe the different trains related to train dynamics and train handling in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The different trains related to train dynamics and train handling are correctly identified and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The different speeds and speed restrictions are explained and an understanding thereof demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Define and describe the general principles of train handling and train handling techniques in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The contents of the knowledge of the line are correctly defined and explained in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    An understanding of cost and measurement of energy, and retention of energy related to train handling is demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The principle of energy and powering while braking is correctly described and demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The train handling techniques related to different downhill gradients are correctly explained and demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The train handling techniques related to different uphill gradients are correctly explained and demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The train handling techniques related to changing gradients are correctly explained and demonstrated in accordance with company specific instructions. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Methods of assessment
  • Written tests/case studies.
  • Oral/on-the-job.
  • In situ (on-the-job) observations.
  • Simulation/Train Simulators.
  • Role-play/structured classroom discussions and oral tests.

    These methods must be selected carefully based on the purpose of the assessment (for example, the written method could be used to assess knowledge; or on-the-job demonstration could be used to assess practical competence).

    The assessment must integrate a number of different methods (no less than three of those detailed above) in order to give the assessor reliable and valid proof of competence and evidence of required attitudes.

    The following tools may be used to supplement the above minimum assessment methods:

    Valid, reliable and authentic evidence (presented as a portfolio of evidence) from past achievements and experience may serve to supplement the assessment of applied competence. The portfolio should include, inter alia:
  • Written statements from persons (e.g. current and/or previous employer, colleague, peer, manager, external customers) confirming competence of the learner.
  • Relevant certificates or awards.
  • Previous assessment records (in accordance with validation regulations relevant to the specific unit standard).
  • Journal (Logbook).

    Assessment mechanisms
  • An individual wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that has been accredited by the relevant ETQA for Transport and Logistics Operations.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA for Transport and Logistics Operations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be registered and accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA for Transport and Logistics Operations.
  • Moderation of assessment will be done by the ETQA for Transport and Logistics Operations as prescribed.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be trained, qualified and certified or re-certified (in accordance with validation regulations relevant to the specific unit standard) in this specific unit standard and registered as an assessor with the ETQA for Transport and Logistics Operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    A learner can understand and explain:
  • Safety rules and regulations related to train control systems.
  • Safe work procedures.
  • Existing communication and reporting lines.
  • Diagnostic and analytical evaluation methods to interpret audible and visual indications from locomotive gauges, indicators, and environmental conditions.
  • Basic maintenance techniques to rectify sub-standard conditions.
  • Communication protocols related to the designations, descriptions and company terminology.
  • Safety rules and regulations related to brake systems.
  • Diagnostic and analytical evaluation techniques.
  • Manufacturer's and company's specific train handling techniques and/or methods.
  • Small scale charts depicting track layout. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Problem solving

    A learner has acquire the ability to identify and react to different topographic conditions (power failures, livestock, etc.). 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Teamwork

    Learners have acquired the generic ability to work effectively with others as part of a team - group/organisation/fellow employees in the execution of his duties. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Self organisation and management

    A learner has acquire the ability to operate his train safely over different topographic sections of line within the specified timetables, running times, special notices or instructions. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Information evaluation

    A learner has acquired the generic ability to evaluate information from graphical/visual and/or audible indicators and environmental conditions whilst handling his train. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communication

    A learner has acquire the generic ability to communicate effectively by using visual and/or audible language skills in oral and/or written form (when authority must be obtained from another source). 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use of science and technology

    A learner has acquire the generic ability apply the principles/physical concepts related to train dynamics and train handling. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Inter relatedness of systems

    A learner has acquire the knowledge to understand how one system has an effect on another (train dynamics and train handling principles). 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Learner and societal development

    A learner has acquire the generic ability to assess risks and take the corrective actions. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Values

    In addition the following values should be demonstrated:
  • Time consciousness.
  • Safety consciousness.
  • Self respect.
  • Honesty.
  • Sobriety.
  • Self discipline.

    Supplementary information

    Physical concepts
  • In this unit standard refers Speed and velocity, Acceleration, forces, friction coefficient, gravity, Resultant and balance of forces, and energy in accordance with company specific instructions and procedures.

    Small-scale graphical display
  • In this unit standard refers to a graphical display supplying certain information of a trajectory.

    Locomotive, Train and Line characteristics
  • In this unit standard refers to traction and braking efforts, rolling, wind and curve resistance, break away resistance, adhesion, brake adhesion and coupler forces.

    General principles of Train handling
  • In this unit standard refers to knowledge of the line, Safety aspects, Running times, cost and measurement of energy, retention of energy, energy and powering while braking and train free play.

    Where learners have been assessed and been found competent to apply train dynamics and train handling, each learner will be issued with a certificate.

    The certificate will further state the operation area/company for which the certificate has been issued. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  57407   National Diploma: Train Driving (Mainline Operations)  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Reregistered  2023-06-30  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. School of Rail: Kimberly 
    2. School of Rail: Port Elizabeth 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.