SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Explain rock behaviour under various loading conditions 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120414  Explain rock behaviour under various loading conditions 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Explain the components of a typical load deformation curve for rock.
  • Describe rock behaviour under uniaxial and triaxial loading.
  • Determine the rheological (time dependent) behaviour of rock under various loading conditions.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard will contribute to social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of rock behaviour under various loading conditions in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Strata Control at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the components of a typical load deformation curve for rock. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The load deformation curves for mine-specific rock types are drawn using simple and well annotated sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Explanations are provided for the different components of the mine-specific load deformation curve and axial and radial strain curve. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Secant and tangent modulus of elasticity.
  • Yield stress.
  • Peak strength.
  • Linear elastic segment.
  • Segments that deviate from linearity.
  • Points of brittle fracture.
  • Strain hardening.
  • Strain softening.
  • Residual strength.
  • Poisson's ratio.
  • Dilation angle.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The methods for calculating various rock properties are demonstrated from the load deformation curves and the points in the curve. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Secant and tangent modulus of elasticity.
  • Yield stress.
  • Peak strength.
  • Residual strength.
  • Poisson's ratio.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe rock behaviour under uniaxial loading. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The laboratory testing procedures for uniaxial strength determination are described in accordance with prescribed guidelines. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Sample preparation.
  • Test apparatus preparation.
  • Data recording.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The ranges are quoted in values for rock properties derived from uniaxial loading of common rock types. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Elastic moduli.
  • Peak strength.
  • Poisson's ratio.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The behaviour of rock samples in soft and stiff testing machines is described and related to underground quasi-static and dynamic loading rates. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences are described of the inappropriate use of rock properties derived from uniaxial testing in mine design. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe the effects of rock behaviour under triaxial loading. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The need for triaxial rock testing is described and related to the existence of a three-dimensional underground state of stress. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The effects of applied confining stress on the peak strength of rock are described using simple sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effects of applied confining stress on the residual strength of rock are described using simple sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The changing material behaviour of rock under different magnitudes of confinement are described using simple sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Linear, non-linear.
  • Brittle and ductile.
  • Strain hardening and softening.
  • Hysteresis (loading-unloading behaviour).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The effects are provided of loading direction on the strength of transversely isotropic rock masses. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Strongly laminated rocks.
  • Well bedded rocks.
  • Rocks with preferential mineral alignments (gneiss and schists).
  • High strength joints.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain rheological (time dependent) behaviour of rock under various loading conditions. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The idealized creep-strain-time curve is constructed using well annotated and simple sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Explanations of the concepts of primary, secondary and tertiary creep are provided and related to loading rate and strength of the rock mass. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The mine specific rock types are listed prone to short-term creep. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Massive and amygdaloidal basalts.
  • Talcose high magnesium basalts.
  • Foliated rock masses.
  • Shale.
  • Mylonite.
  • Thick brecciated and gouge filled interfaces.
  • Highly jointed dykes.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of not accounting for creep are provided. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Uncontrollable squeezing.
  • Uncontrollable plastic flow.
  • Impingement on specified clearances.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the Unit Standard.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate's performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.

    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Application of the occupational health and safety requirements.
  • Understanding of the components of a typical load deformation curve.
  • Understanding of rock behaviour under uniaxial loading.
  • Understanding of rock behaviour under triaxial loading.
  • Understanding of the impact of rheological behaviour of rock. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • The ability to understand how different loading conditions influences the behaviour of rock confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Collection and evaluation of literature relating to the loading and behaviour of rock confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • The ability of the candidate to interpret load deformation curves confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • The ability of the clearly draw and annotate diagrams of curves confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • The use of calculations to determine rock parameters confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • The understanding that loading of rock directly influences its behaviour, which in turn impacts on its stability and safety of workers, confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    1. Specified requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Legal:

    > Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
    > Mandatory Codes of Practice.
    > SABS and other relevant Standards.
    > Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives.
  • Site-specific:

    > Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
    > Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
    > Managerial Instructions.
    > Mine Standard Procedures.
    > List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
    > Working Guides.
    > Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    2. Unit standard justification:
  • Level:

    > Attribute; Level; Justification:

    > Skills; 5; Wide-ranging, specialised scholastic or technical.
    > Procedures; 4; Considerable choice.
    > Context; 4; Variety of familiar and unfamiliar.
    > Knowledge; 4; Broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts.
    > Information processing; 5; Analytical interpretation of a wide range of data.
    > Problem solving; 4; A range of sometimes innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problem, based on informed judgement.
    > Orientation of activities; 3; Directed, with some autonomy.
    > Application of responsibility; 3; Significant responsibility for the quantity and quality of output, and possible responsibility for the output of others.
    > Orientation of scope of responsibility; 4; Under broad guidance and evaluation.

    > Average level: 4.00
    > Actual level assigned: 4
  • Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    > Activity:

    > Classroom teaching: 24 hours
    > On-the-job training: 12 hours
    > Total: 36 hours

    > Credits achieved: (36/10) = 3.6
    > Credits assigned: 4 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 
    Elective  50082   Further Education and Training Certificate: Minerals Surveying  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2012-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Adcorp Technical Training 
    2. KHUTALA COLLIERY 
    3. Palabora Copper Pty Ltd 
    4. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    5. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    6. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.