SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of different depth environments 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120409  Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of different depth environments 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
2006-02-09  2008-08-20  SAQA 0264/06 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2009-08-20   2012-08-20  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
256845  Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of different depth environments  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for persons who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Explain how the different depth environments are classified.
  • Explain the importance and effect of depth on horizontal and vertical stress to underground excavations.
  • Describe the factors controlling the stability of underground excavations in different depth environments.
  • Explain the potential rockfall and rockburst hazard in different depth environments.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills and understanding of the characteristics of different depth environments in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Strata Control at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain how the different depth environments are classified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The classes are provided for depth environments. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Intermediate.
  • Deep.
  • Ultra deep.
  • Shallow.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Depth ranges are provided for the different mining environment classes. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Explanations are provided as to how conditions characteristic of an alternate depth environment can be created with mining layouts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Over/under stoping.
  • Simultaneous or subsequent secondary and/or tertiary reef/seam extraction.
  • Remnant mining.
  • Partial or total designed pillar extraction.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain the importance and effect of depth on horizontal and vertical stress to underground excavations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The method of calculating the vertical virgin stress is demonstrated at a given depth. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The concept of k-ratio is explained and the way it typically changes with depth below surface is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Explanations are provided as to the role of stress in the formation of induced fractures around an excavation and, the typical fracture frequencies around excavations at differing depths is described specific to the orebody being exploited. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The relationship between stress, stope closure and Energy Release Rate (ERR) is described for the different classified depth environments. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe the factors controlling the stability of underground excavations in different depth environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The extent of the tensile zone in the hangingwall/roof and its effect on excavation stability is described for the various depth environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The creation of horizontal clamping forces and their role in the stability of the hangingwall/roof beam is described in accordance with the characteristics typical for different depth environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of geological structures on hangingwall/roof stability is described in accordance with the characteristics typical for different depth environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The depth environment is explained by how it controls the requirements of support elements and systems. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Stiffness.
  • Yieldability.
  • Strength.
  • Longevity.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain the potential rockfall and rockburst hazard in different depth environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The seismic hazard for the different depth environments are described with respect to the nature, frequency, magnitude and severity. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Explanations are provided for the relationships between stress and frequency, condition and persistence of natural and induced discontinuities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Depth in crush and slip type seismic is explained by role and events. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The concept of Excess Shear Stress (ESS) is described as it relates to the different depth environments. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the Unit Standard.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the context of the unit standard.
  • Typical classification of depth environment.
  • The effect of depth on horizontal and vertical stress and the significance thereof to underground excavations.
  • The factors controlling the stability of underground excavations in different depth environments.
  • The potential rockfall and rockburst hazard in different depth environments. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • The ability of the candidate to explain the factors that govern the behaviour of the rock mass in response to mining in different depth environments confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Not applicable to this standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • The candidate's ability to systematically assess the impact of increasing depth on the mining environment confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • The ability of the candidate to assimilate and analyse information peculiar to a specific depth environment confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • The ability to anticipate the expected rock mass responses to mining based on the depth thereby aiding in creating an awareness of hazards generic to that depth confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • The knowledge and understanding that the depth environment is a key factor that governs the rockmass response to mining, which in turn determines the stability of underground excavations confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 256845, which is "Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of different depth environments", Level 4, 4 credits.

    Terminology:

    1. Specified requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Legal:

    > Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
    > Mandatory Codes of Practice.
    > SANS and other relevant Standards.
    > Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
    > Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.
  • Site-specific:

    > Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
    > Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
    > Managerial Instructions.
    > Mine Standard Procedures.
    > List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
    > Working Guides.
    > Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    2. Unit standard justification:
  • Level:

    > Attribute; Level; Justification:

    > Skills; 4; Wide-ranging scholastic or technical.
    > Procedures; 4; Considerable choice.
    > Context; 4; Variety of familiar and unfamiliar.
    > Knowledge; 4; Broad knowledge base incorporating some theoretical concepts.
    > Information processing; 4; Basic analytical interpretation of information.
    > Problem solving; 4; A range of sometimes innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problem, based on informed judgement.
    > Orientation of activities; 4; Self-directed.
    > Application of responsibility; 3; Significant responsibility for the quantity and quality of output, and possible responsibility for the output of others.
    > Orientation of scope of responsibility; 4; Under broad guidance and evaluation.

    > Average level: 3.89
    > Actual level assigned: 4
  • Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    > Activity:

    > Classroom teaching: 16 hours
    > On-the-job training: 24 hours
    > Total: 40 hours

    > Credits achieved: (40/10) = 4.0
    > Credits assigned: 4 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50082   Further Education and Training Certificate: Minerals Surveying  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2012-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
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    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.