SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of mining strategies applicable to the different depth environments 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
120406  Demonstrate an understanding of mining strategies applicable to the different depth environments 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for persons who are pursuing a career in Rock Engineering.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Interpret the mining strategies employed in mining environments:
    > Range:
    > Shallow mining environment.
    > Intermediate mining environments.
    > Deep and ultra-deep mining environments.
  • Assess the potential risk in the mining environment to be addressed by the mining strategy.

    The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and contribute to the upliftment and economic growth of the mining and minerals sector.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills and understanding of mining strategies applicable to different depth environments in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Strata Control at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of different mining strategies and the typical depth environments they are employed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The generally accepted classes of depth environments together with the depth ranges are provided. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Classes must include:
  • Shallow.
  • Intermediate.
  • Deep.
  • Ultra deep.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The mining methods typical for the different classes of depths are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Scattered.
  • Sequential grid.
  • Longwall.
  • Bord and pillar.
  • Room and pillar.
  • Continuous/staggered drift and fill.
  • Cut and fill.
  • Block caving.
  • Vertical crater retreat.
  • Strip and opencast.
  • Pillar extraction.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Strategies used to manage rock related risks are described in accordance with mine specific codes of practice. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Assess the potential risk in the mining environment to be addressed by the mining strategy. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Shallow and Intermediate. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    A description is provided of the potential risks in the mining environment that the mining strategy needs to address. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Beam failure.
  • Excavation collapse.
  • Backbreak.
  • Hangingwall/roof partings.
  • Footwall heave.
  • Subsidence.
  • Creation of remnants.
  • Rockburst damage.
  • Seismically active geological structures.
  • Stress induced damage on access development.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The role of pillars in the shallow mining environment is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The purpose of different pillar systems used in shallow mining environments is described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Description must include:
  • Rigid.
  • Barrier and yield/crush.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effect of geological structures on the mining strategy is explained with reference to the incorporation of the structure into pillars, the increase of pillar sizes or the change of pillar orientation. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The influence of the typically low closure rates on support characteristic requirements is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Methods of reducing the risk associated with the creation of remnants are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Off -reef mining is explained as a means of protection of strategic excavations. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Interpret the mining strategies employed in deep and ultra-deep mining environments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The potential ground control and seismic risks are described in the deep mining environment that the mining strategy needs to address. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Intense fracturing of the stope hanging wall.
  • High stope closure rates.
  • High stresses on strategic excavations.
  • Damaging seismicity ahead of the face.
  • Slip or bursting on geological structures.
  • Damaging seismicity associated with pillars or remnants.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of maintaining leads and lags between panels is described with respect to fracturing and the risk of damage during a seismic event. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The effect of high closure rates on support characteristic requirements is described with respect to stiffness, yieldability, strength and required longevity. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The use of preconditioning is explained to reduce the potential for damaging seismicity ahead of mining faces. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The use of bracket pillars is explained to reduce slip or bursting on geological structures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The use of regional support in reducing rates of closure and energy release rates are explained and related to the management of rockbursts. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The types of criteria used for layout design are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Average pillar stress.
  • Excess shear stress.
  • Temporal and spatial seismic distribution.
  • Energy release rate.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the Unit Standard.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the context of the unit standard.
  • Different mining strategies and the typical depth environments they are employed.
  • Typical mining strategies employed in shallow mining environments.
  • Mining strategies typically employed in the intermediate mining environment.
  • Mining strategies typically employed in deep and ultra-deep mining environments. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • The ability of the candidate to describe different mining strategies and to explain the manner in which they address the risks associated with mining at different depths confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Not applicable to this standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • The candidate's ability to systematically assess the different strategies applicable to the mining environments confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • The ability of the candidate to assimilate knowledge of mining strategies and apply the strategies to the appropriate depth environment confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • The use of neat, simple and concise sketches and equations to demonstrate understanding confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • The ability to use an appropriate mining strategy for a given depth environment which will address the risks involved with mining at that depth confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • The knowledge and understanding that different mining strategies are used to control risks associated with different depth environments, which in turn determines the stability of underground excavations confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    1. Specified requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Legal:

    > Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
    > Mandatory Codes of Practice.
    > SANS and other relevant Standards.
    > Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
    > Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.
  • Site-specific:

    > Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
    > Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
    > Managerial Instructions.
    > Mine Standard Procedures.
    > List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
    > Working Guides.
    > Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    2. Unit standard justification:
  • Level:

    > Attribute; Level; Justification:

    > Skills; 5; Wide-ranging specialised scholastic or technical.
    > Procedures; 4; Considerable choice.
    > Context; 4; Variety of familiar and unfamiliar.
    > Knowledge; 5; Broad knowledge base with substantial depth in more than one area.
    > Information processing; 4; Basic analytical interpretation of information.
    > Problem solving; 4; A range of sometimes innovative responses to concrete but often unfamiliar problem, based on informed judgement.
    > Orientation of activities; 4; Self-directed.
    > Application of responsibility; 3; Significant responsibility for the quantity and quality of output, and possible responsibility for the output of others.
    > Orientation of scope of responsibility; 4; Under broad guidance and evaluation.

    > Average level: 4.11
    > Actual level assigned: 4
  • Credits:

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:

    > Activity:

    > Classroom teaching: 24 hours
    > On-the-job training: 32 hours
    > Total: 56 hours

    > Credits achieved: (56/10) = 5.6
    > Credits assigned: 6 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  62796   Further Education and Training Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 
    Elective  59709   Further Education and Training Certificate: Mechanical Engineering: Fitting  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2021-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  50082   Further Education and Training Certificate: Minerals Surveying  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2012-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Adcorp Technical Training 
    2. Black Eagle Training (PIETERMARITZBURG) (TP) 
    3. Blue Horison Properties 53 (Pty) Ltd T/A Durnacol Skills Innovation Hu 
    4. Coastal Kzn F.E.T. College - Swinton Road Campus 
    5. COLLIERY TRAINING COLLEGE 
    6. Customised Training Specialists Trust T/A CTS (PINETOWN) (TP) 
    7. Eastcape Training Centre 
    8. Enstra Learning and Development Centre (Pty) Ltd (SPRINGS) (TP) 
    9. False Bay Public FET College - Westlake Campus 
    10. FOSKOR Pty Ltd 
    11. Gijima AST Holdings (Pty) Ltd T/A Fundi Training Centre (BENONI) (TP) 
    12. ITHEMBA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
    13. Izizwe Training Centre (Pty) Ltd T/A Simtech Training (NORTHDENE) (TP) 
    14. KHUTALA COLLIERY 
    15. Majuba FET College - Newcastle Technology Centre 
    16. MSC Artisan Academy (Pty) Ltd T/A Master Artisan Academy SA (EAST LOND 
    17. Mthetana Trading & Construction T/A Multi Skill Training Centre (DURBA 
    18. Northlink College - Wingfield Campus 
    19. Palabora Copper Pty Ltd 
    20. Scaw Metals Group (Pty) Ltd T/A Scaw Metals (DINWIDDIE) (TP) 
    21. SEDIBENG TRAINING CENTRE 
    22. Shine The Way 281 cc T/A Industrial Training Centre (NEW GERMANY) (TP) 
    23. Shukela Training Centre 
    24. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    25. Tekmation (Pty) Ltd T/A Tekmation Training Institute (DURBAN) (TP) 
    26. THE SAJ COMPETENCY TRAINING INSTITUTE CC 
    27. Toyota Academy Toyota SA Motors (Pty) Ltd (ISIPINGO) (TP) 
    28. Umfolozi FET College 
    29. Umfolozi FET College - Mandeni Campus 
    30. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    31. World Focus 382 cc T/A Richards Bay Technical Training & Assessment Centre (ZCBF) (RICHARDS BAY) (TP) 
    32. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (PTY) LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.