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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Optimise manufacturing processes 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
119166  Optimise manufacturing processes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Plastics Manufacturing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  24 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2008-11-18  2011-02-16  SAQA 0160/05 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2012-02-16   2015-02-16  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9894  Optimise the production process  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  24  Complete 

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
377001  Optimise manufacturing and production processes  Level 5  NQF Level 05  24  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
In order for me to perform effectively in the field of plastics manufacturing, I will be able to:
  • Identify opportunities for continuous improvement interventions.
  • Optimise all the elements of a plastics manufacturing process.
  • Apply methods and techniques to develop, implement and evaluate continuous improvement measures.

    I will also know and understand:
  • The principles, value and purpose of continuous improvement.
  • Various philosophies and methods related to continuous improvement.
  • The value of a standard approach to continuous improvement.

    I can be assessed against this unit standard in the context of any volume plastics manufacturing process, e.g.
  • Injection moulding.
  • Blow moulding.
  • Various kinds of extrusion.
  • Variations of thermoforming.
  • Rotational moulding.
  • Calendaring.
  • Compression and related moulding processes.
  • Reaction injection moulding.
  • Polymer composites fabrication processes such as pultrusion, filament winding and resin injection.

    The volume production process also includes the regeneration of recycled materials and the manufacture of intermediate products such as sheet, profiles, compounds and master batches.

    The skill, the knowledge and the values reflected in this unit standard form part of the exit level outcomes required for the National Certificate in Plastics Manufacturing NQF Level 5. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credits for this unit standard assume that I have a National Certificate in Plastics Manufacturing NQF Level 4 or an equivalent qualification. They also assume that I am working towards my qualification as part of a learning programme which integrates all the required unit standards.

    My learning time will increase if I do not have:
  • A relevant NQF 4 qualification.
  • Experience in a relevant field.

    My learning time will be decreased if I have experience in this field because:
  • My learning programme will be adjusted to build on what I already know.
  • I can apply to have that prior learning recognised. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope and level of this unit standard is indicated by range statements related to the specific outcomes.

    The production process means a series of operations including material preparation, material distribution, conversion of the materials, quality assurance and subsequent operation of the finished or semi-finished production, for example decoration, assembly, testing, conditioning, packing and dispatch.

    Optimising means continuously improving the efficiency of the manufacturing plant and the process; it also means developing skills, using resources effectively and reducing overall cost. It requires testing the boundaries of the known and finding new ways of creating improvement.

    Typical contexts for the skill are:
  • Improving workflow and logistical arrangements.
  • Improving operating skills and setting skills.
  • Improving output.
  • Reducing faults, deviations, downtime, wastage and spillage.
  • Changing materials, grades and additive packages.
  • Improvements to tooling and equipment, e.g. screw design, control systems, instrumentation.

    The work reflected in this unit standard is normally performed autonomously. The work will be guided by relevant worksite procedures, manufacturers' specifications and safety, health and environmental legislation. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Collect and analyse data and identify opportunities for improvement. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Data: historical, customer complaints, machine process data/records, product data, product specification, test results, workgroup reports, etc.

    Analyse data: group and summarise data; use of data analysis techniques to identify trends; grouping/clustering of results; graphs, limits (e.g. highs, lows, averages), visual aids (e.g. charts, scatter grams) statistical process control techniques.

    Identify opportunities: strengths, deviations, problem areas highlighted; solutions discussed, researched (e.g. check if others have tried this), simulated; opinions obtained; trials run. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    See the consolidated assessment criteria for this unit standard which are listed under the last outcome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The assessment criteria for this unit standard have been consolidated to:
  • Facilitate integrated assessment.
  • Ensure that the purpose of the unit standard as a whole is assessed (not just the component parts).

    Use the consolidated assessment criteria that are reflected under the last outcome to develop the assessment guides and assessment tools for this unit standard. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Identify the root cause of the problem; generate and test options to achieve improvement. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Generate options includes: develop working hypothesis, identify key areas of improvement.

    Test options includes: discuss options, obtain opinions, research options (check if others have tried this), simulate, run trials, determine the cost implications and potential savings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    See the consolidated assessment criteria for this unit standard which are listed under the last outcome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The assessment criteria for this unit standard have been consolidated to:
  • Facilitate integrated assessment.
  • Ensure that the purpose of the unit standard as a whole is assessed (not just the component parts).

    Use the consolidated assessment criteria that are reflected under the last outcome to develop the assessment guides and assessment tools for this unit standard. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Set objective(s), develop a plan and implement the improvement(s). 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Plan includes: Objectives, budgets, resources required, documentation for any part of the activity, requisition, requests, submissions, proposals, anticipated impact.

    Implement includes: motivating the plan to superiors, setting up a project team, briefing the work group, negotiating and co-ordinating with other departments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    See the consolidated assessment criteria for this unit standard which are listed under the last outcome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The assessment criteria for this unit standard have been consolidated to:
  • Facilitate integrated assessment.
  • Ensure that the purpose of the unit standard as a whole is assessed (not just the component parts).

    Use the consolidated assessment criteria that are reflected under the last outcome to develop the assessment guides and assessment tools for this unit standard. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Monitor and evaluate the changes; review and adjust the optimisation process until objective(s) have been achieved. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Monitor and evaluate the changes includes: collecting data, identifying improvements or knock-on effects, identifying trends, ensuring that the safety and health of the work group and the environment is not affected. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    See the consolidated assessment criteria for this unit standard which are listed under the last outcome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The assessment criteria for this unit standard have been consolidated to:
  • Facilitate integrated assessment.
  • Ensure that the purpose of the unit standard as a whole is assessed (not just the component parts).

    Use the consolidated assessment criteria that are reflected under the last outcome to develop the assessment guides and assessment tools for this unit standard. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Adjust and update standards and report improvements. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Standards include: operating procedures, formulations or recipes, settings, training materials, protocols, ordering information.

    Improvements include: operational and financial improvements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    See the consolidated assessment criteria for this unit standard which are listed under the last outcome. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    The assessment criteria for this unit standard have been consolidated to:
  • Facilitate integrated assessment.
  • Ensure that the purpose of the unit standard as a whole is assessed (not just the component parts).

    Use the consolidated assessment criteria that are reflected under the last outcome to develop the assessment guides and assessment tools for this unit standard. 

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Engage in discussions on continuous improvement issues with the workgroup and other partners. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Engage in discussions includes informal training.

    Other partners includes: suppliers of materials and equipment, experts, customers. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Interventions result in a series of incremental improvements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Results achieved. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Evidence of several continuous improvements over a period of 3 - 4 months should be produced. Incremental improvements can be small but need to be sustainable and verifiable. If an intervention did not achieve the desired change but was based on a plausible hypothesis, this should still be regarded as valid evidence since it at least establishes directions which may not yield results.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Data is grouped and summarised; deviations, opportunities and problem areas are highlighted. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Data is:
  • Comprehensive.
  • Organised logically and systematically.
  • Stored in an accessible way.
  • Arranged to assist others to interpret it.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Plan is recorded; objective(s), steps, responsibilities, times and costs are indicated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    All relevant parties are briefed and participate constructively in the implementation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    All aspects of the intervention are appropriately documented and stored. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Documented includes development of plans, instructions, budgets, proposals; updating of standards and procedures and work instructions; generation of reports and communication documents.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Options are viable, relevant and practical. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    If an intervention did not achieve the desired change but was based on a plausible hypothesis, this should still be regarded as a valid option since it is still relevant and establishes directions which may not yield results.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Instructions to work group members are clear and precise and their understanding of instructions is checked. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Safety, health and the environment are considered as part of the planning and implementation process or in determining the intended improvements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Results collected are accurate, comprehensive and arranged in such a way that the improvement or the lack or improvement is clear. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    Sufficient time is allowed for the effects of adjustments to be fully realised; the process maintains a steady state and unexpected consequences are allowed to become evident. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Indicator. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Discussions of issues demonstrate that I have an understanding of the key concepts and principles related to optimising production processes and an understanding of how these relate to application in practice. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION NOTES 
    Assessment criterion type: Understanding confirmed. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discussions include: explanation and motivation.

    Issues, key concepts and principles include:
  • Data analysis.
  • Options.
  • Plan and results.
  • Statistical and graphic techniques used.
  • Scientific and mathematical principles and techniques used.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    To obtain credits I must be assessed. The assessment will be based on evidence that I produce. My assessment will be governed by the policies and guidelines of a relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance body (ETQA), which has jurisdiction over this field of learning. The policies and procedures of the relevant ETQA will also determine:
  • How my assessment is moderated.
  • How I can appeal against the outcome of the assessment.

    Any institution or company which offers learning that will enable me to achieve the purpose of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA.

    My assessment against this standard should meet the all the requirements of established principles. It should include practical assessment activities which are appropriate to the contents of this unit standard. These activities should include an appropriate combination of self and peer assessment, practical and oral assessments, observations, etc.

    I can be assessed in the language of my choice although if I have to report incidents or conditions to someone else, I will be assessed on my ability to report in the language commonly used in my working environment.

    I will be assessed on all the specific outcomes, critical cross-field outcomes and essential embedded knowledge. Each specific outcome must be assessed in its own right, through oral and practical evidence. My assessment will not only be based on observation but also on other evidence which I compile into a portfolio of evidence. I cannot be assessed only through a written or oral test.

    The specific outcomes and essential knowledge will be assessed in relation to each other. If I am able to explain the items which fall under the heading of essential embedded knowledge, but am unable to perform the specific outcomes, then I cannot be assessed as 'competent'. Similarly, if I am able to perform tasks described under the specific outcomes, but cannot explain or justify them in terms of the fundamental concepts, principles and practice relevant to the level of the unit standard that underpins my skill, then I cannot be assessed as 'competent'.

    I will also be assessed on my ability to apply the principles and techniques related to the critical cross-field outcomes, not only in terms of what I can demonstrate, but also in terms of what I know and can discuss.

    My assessment for this unit standard can be done in conjunction with the assessment of other unit standards related to a qualification, and even in conjunction with my assessment for the qualification as a whole. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following items reflect the type of knowledge that the assessor will evaluate:

    1. Names and functions of:
  • Sources and types of information.
  • Measures of efficiency.
  • Losses.
  • Factors relating to continuous improvement.
  • Concepts related to statistical process control.

    2. Purpose of:
  • Information gathering and analysis.
  • Efficiency measures.
  • Continuous improvement.
  • Statistical process control.

    3. Attributes, descriptions, characteristics and properties:
  • Types of efficiency measures.
  • Types of losses.
  • Various approaches to maintaining or improving efficiencies, e.g. lean manufacturing, TPM, TQM, 5s, 6Sigma, Kaizan, etc.
  • Properties of materials and equipment which impact on efficiencies.

    4. Processes and events:
  • Measurement processes.
  • Analysis processes.
  • Problem solving and evaluation processes.

    5. Causes and effects, implications of:
  • Typical and unusual causes of losses.
  • Implications of inefficiencies, poor working practices, lack of controls, lack of information and skills.
  • Material and equipment-related issues which affect efficiency, e.g. corrosion, degradation, abrasion, wear.
  • Impact of changes.
  • Sequence of actions.

    6. Procedures and techniques:
  • Analysis and research techniques.
  • Methods of collecting, analysing, organising, summarising and presenting data.
  • Methods of testing solution options.
  • Methods for limiting the effects of specific variables.
  • Methods of collecting, analysing, organising, summarising and presenting data.
  • Methods of determining and calculating efficiencies.
  • Problem identification and solving techniques.
  • Fault finding and correction techniques.
  • Quality related procedures.

    7. Sensory cues:
  • Related to incipient problems (identified by sight, sound, smell, feel).

    8. Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards:
  • Reviewing and adjusting standards and operating procedures.
  • Safety, health and environmental legislation and regulations.
  • Quality policies, standards and agreements.

    9. Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Summarising data (sum, average, difference, deviations, trends).
  • Scientific principles and techniques.
  • Statistical process control.
  • Relevant mathematics and statistics.
  • Relevant engineering and polymer processing principles.
  • Interrelationship of physical and chemical properties and factors which impact on them.
  • Key concepts of programmes to maintain or improve efficiencies, e.g. lean manufacturing, TPM, TQM, 5s, 6 Sigma, Kaizan, etc.
  • Reasons for intervention failure.
  • Problem identification and solving principles.
  • Process mapping.

    10. Categories:
  • Types of information.
  • Types of problems.
  • Types of losses.

    11. Relationships, systems:
  • Impact of interventions on costs (i.e. costs/benefit ratios), performance improvements, safety, health and environmental impacts and the interrelationship between these factors.
  • Output, maintenance and properties of finished product related to costs, sustainability and profitability. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
  • Identify opportunities for performance improvement in a complex process with several interrelated variables.
  • Apply a range of problem identification and solving principles and a range of techniques to achieve improved performance.
  • Calculate performance and financial impact of changes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Inform others of, and motivate, negotiate and implement changes to procedure and practice (improved performance). 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
  • Conceptualise, develop and implement plans to generate improvements.
  • Work methodically and systematically, recording progress and improvements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
  • Collect and analyse data, and use results to identify deviations.
  • Apply data analysis techniques. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
  • Explain, discuss and motivate change.
  • Explain and discuss performance.
  • Negotiate for resources and time. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
  • Use data representation and manipulation.
  • Use a methodical, scientific approach. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
  • Identify and allow for the effects of change on all aspects of the system.
  • Balance improvements across the needs of all stakeholders. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    My assessor will be registered and have a plastics manufacturing qualification at NQF 6 or higher. In the absence of assessors with such qualifications, the ETQA can make interim arrangements. My assessor should also be active in the industry and be familiar with the materials, machinery, products and level of technology in which I have contextualised my skills and knowledge. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard has been replaced by unit standard 377001, which is "Optimise manufacturing and production processes", Level 5, 24 credits.

    This unit standard replaces unit standard 9894, "Optimise the production process ", Level 5, 24 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  21007   National Certificate: Automotive component manufacturing and assembly  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2008-11-01  Was MERSETA until Last Date for Achievement 
    Core  71969   National Certificate: Automotive Components: Manufacturing and Assembly  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  MERSETA 
    Core  49448   National Certificate: Plastics Manufacturing  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MERSETA 
    Core  57122   National Certificate: Printing and Manufacture of Packaging  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2015-06-30  FPMSETA 
    Elective  59201   National Certificate: Generic Management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 
    Elective  49743   National Certificate: Manufacturing Management  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Career Pathing Solutions (Pty) Ltd (KRUGERSDORP) (TP) 
    2. College of Production Technology 
    3. CREATIVE FOUNDATION TRAINING 
    4. DMP Training (PINETOWN) (TP) 
    5. DYNA TRAINING (PTY) LTD (Cape Town) 
    6. Plastics Federation of South Africa (MAITLAND) (TP) 
    7. Plastics Federation of South Africa (MIDRAND) (TP) 
    8. Plastics Federation of South Africa (WESTMEAD) (TP) 
    9. Ronald Sewell & Associates SA (Pty) Ltd T/A Sewells (BRYANSTON) (TP) 
    10. Russ Projects T/A Academy Workplace Development (AWD) (HARRIETDALE) (T 
    11. SANDVIK MINING & CONSTRUCTION RSA (PTY) LTD 
    12. Scaw Metals Group (Pty) Ltd T/A Scaw Metals (DINWIDDIE) (TP) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.