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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection technology 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
11615  Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection technology 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products,
  • Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product,
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection,
  • Perform shut down procedures.

    This unit standard is for anyone who works in a food or beverage manufacturing environment who is responsible for sterilising or pasteurising food or beverage products using direct steam injection technology.

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the food or beverage manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and will contribute to the upliftment and economic growth within the food or beverage manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
  • Determination of the temperature of a food product.
  • Cleaning procedures, handling of equipment and chemicals.
  • Representative sample taking for quality control purposes.
  • Knowledge of heating and cooling procedures.
  • Knowledge of introductory food microbiology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The scope of this unit standard is for anyone who works in a food or beverage manufacturing environment who is responsible for sterilising or pasteurising food or beverage products using direct steam injection technology.

    In the context of this unit standard a liquid food product is any free flowing or viscous food product, e.g. molasses or cream, and can also include beverage products. Direct steam injection refers to an automated process in which the food or beverage product comes into direct contact with the sterilising or pasteurising agent (steam).

    The level assigned to this unit standard is appropriate because the process requires a range of well-developed skills and offers a significant choice of procedures. Some relevant theoretical knowledge, interpretation of available information, discretion and judgement, as well as a range of known responses to familiar problems are employed. The application of this unit standard is to qualify the person for certification in skilled occupations and sub-trades. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose and principles of sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product is explained according to standard operating procedures and food principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The terms "sterility" and "commercial sterility" are defined according to standard food principles and in terms of the effect thereof on micro-organisms and their spores. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The logarithmic reduction of spores and micro-organisms in sterilised or pasteurised liquid food products is explained according to standard food and microbiological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The way in which efficiency of sterilisation or pasteurisation is established is explained according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The operating principles of the equipment used for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products are described according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The components of the equipment and system used for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products are identified and the purpose of each component is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The requirements for the steam used in direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation processes are identified and the reasons for it are explained according to standard operating procedures and food principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The cleaning and sanitising requirements of the equipment used in direct sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products are explained in line with standard operating procedures, as well as standard food and manufacturer`s cleaning and sanitising principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanations covers:
  • The purpose of cleaning and sanitising agents,
  • Types of cleaning and sanitising agents used,
  • Cleaning and sanitising sequences and parameters during CIP and COP processes,
  • The consequences of incorrect or inadequate cleaning and sanitising procedures on product quality.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Food safety practices and procedures for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation are identified and explained according to standard operating procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. Personal preparation is done according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Personal preparation refers to practices that ensure hygiene, personal and product safety.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The sterilisation or pasteurisation system is sanitised according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Sanitising materials are handled according to standard operating procedures and safety requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The relevant parameters are set according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The reasons for specific values of the different parameters are explained according to standard food principles, the manufacturer`s specifications and minimum legal specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The sterilisation or pasteurisation system is started up according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Common problems during start up are solved within scope of work. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving includes:
  • Recognition of signs of problems,
  • Identification of common problems, their causes and methods for prevention,
  • Description of the consequences of the problem.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. A liquid food product is sterilised or pasteurised according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Equipment is handled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Quality assurance parameters for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters to be monitored and controlled may include, but are not limited to:
  • Temperatures, as per standard operating procedures,
  • Plate counts, as per standard operating procedures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Samples are taken at required intervals in accordance with standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Samples are dispatched to designated areas for analysis. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Results of sample analysis are interpreted and a conclusion is drawn on the efficiency of sterilisation or pasteurisation in terms of food safety requirements and site specifications. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters to be monitored and controlled may include, but are not limited to:
  • Temperatures, as per standard operating procedures,
  • Plate counts, as per standard operating procedures.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Sterilised or pasteurised products are produced to conform to site-specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Records of the process are kept in accordance with standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. Where a direct steam steriliser or pasteuriser is operated simultaneously with other production actions or processes, it is synchronized according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. Common problems are solved within scope of work. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Problem solving includes:
  • Recognition of signs of problems,
  • Identification of common problems, their causes and methods for prevention,
  • Description of the consequences of the problem.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Perform shut down procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The sterilising or pasteurising system is shut down according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Decisions to clean and sanitise the sterilising or pasteurising system, in conjunction with other equipment, are based on standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Decisions refer to:
  • Full wash,
  • Intermediate washing and sanitising cycles.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The sterilising or pasteurising system is cleaned and sanitised according to standard operating and safety procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Quality assurance parameters for cleaning and sanitising are monitored and controlled according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Parameters to be monitored and controlled include:
  • Temperatures,
  • Flow rates,
  • Concentrations of cleaning agents.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Cleaning and sanitising materials are handled according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Cleaning equipment and materials are stored in designated areas according to work-site requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Waste from the cleaning process is handled and disposed of according to standard operating procedures and legal requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Records are kept according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. All the symptoms and possible causes of all faults, or potential faults, that occur during the equipment shut down, cleaning and sanitising are identified and corrective actions are taken within scope of work. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The equipment is left clean and ready for re-use. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    11. The work area is left in a safe and clean condition. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Internal moderation.
  • External moderation.
  • An assessor, accredited by the relevant ETQA, will assess the learner`s competency.
  • Assessment procedures will be supplied by the ETQA in alignment with NSB requirements.
  • All assessment activities must be fair, so that all candidates have equal opportunities. Activities must be free of gender, ethnic or other bias.
  • Questions and answers to determine theoretical knowledge are expected.
  • Examination of an assessment portfolio.
  • Reporting skills are demonstrated by effective communication, using verbal (language) and/or writing skills.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions.
  • Practical demonstration of sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product using direct steam injection technology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying and solving problems during start-up, operation and shut-down of the sterilising or pasteurising equipment.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product.
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection.
  • Perform shut down procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community by:
  • Synchronising sterilisation or pasteurisation with other production actions or processes.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcome:
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Preparing for sterilisation or pasteurisation,
  • Sterilising or pasteurising a liquid food product,
  • Performing shut down procedures.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product.
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection.
  • Perform shut down procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Evaluating the efficiency of sterilisation or pasteurisation.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcome:
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations by:
  • Monitoring and recording the sterilisation or pasteurisation process.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection.
  • Perform shut down procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Cleaning and sanitising the sterilising or pasteurising system,
  • Storing cleaning and sanitising equipment and materials,
  • Disposing of waste from the cleaning process,
  • Demonstrating knowledge of sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of liquid food products.
  • Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product.
  • Perform shut down procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation by:
  • Solving problems within scope of work.

    Evident in the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Prepare for direct steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of a liquid food product.
  • Sterilise or pasteurise a liquid food product using direct steam injection. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all Specific Outcomes. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Supplementary Information:

    Legal requirements:

    The following acts and/or codes, current and future regulations and amendments will be applicable:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972,
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977,
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993,
  • SABS Food Hygiene Management Code 49: 1989,
  • Local by-laws.

    Definition of terms within this unit standard:

    Terminology & clarification/explanation/definition:

    Commercial sterility:
    Refers to a situation in which all disease-causing and food or beverage spoiling micro-organisms are killed during sterilisation or pasteurisation but the spores of these micro-organisms are not necessarily killed.

    Liquid food product:
    Refers to any free flowing or viscous food product, e.g. molasses or cream, and can also include beverage products.

    Sterile/Sterility:
    A sterile product contains no living micro-organisms or spores. Sterilised products are manufactured by means of sterilisation through which the product is heated to such a high temperature that no living micro-organisms or their spores survive.

    Sterilisation or pasteurisation with direct steam injection:
    Refers to the processes by which a food or beverage product is heat treated to obtain commercial sterility. These processes are automated, in which the food or beverage product comes into direct contact with the sterilising or pasteurising agent (steam).

    Standard operating procedures:
    Refer to company procedures, prescribed procedures from the manufacturer, personal and food safety procedures, good manufacturing practices, best practices, applicable legislation, time frames, recipes and specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  22630   National Certificate: Food and Beverage Manufacturing Technology: Yeast Manufacturing Technology  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.